Bibliography of Canadian Military Heritage Volume 2 (1755 – 1871)

The text and illustrations in this book are based on many different sources. The following bibliography is not exhaustive, but rather a guide to the main sources. The collections of artifacts at many historical sites and museums were also studied. Most of these are mentioned in the captions to the illustrations.


National Archives of Canada
These archives are very important for Canadian researchers because they contain copies of virtually all manuscripts related to Canada in the British or French archives and national libraries. The collection of nineteenth-century military iconography is considerable. There is also an impressive collection of original records. The Northcliffe Collection (MG18) includes many records of the British and French armies from the Seven Years' War, including Montcalm's Diary. Series RG7, RG8, RG9, MG23, MG24 and MG26 contain thousands of volumes about the British army, the militias and the Canadian Volunteers.

Archives nationales de France
Colonies: Séries A (ordinances); B (In-letters); C11A (Canada); C11B (Île Royale); C13A and C13B (Louisiana); D2C (troops); E (personal files); FIA (finances); F3 (Moreau de Saint-Méry collection); Dépôt des fortifications des colonies.
Marine: Series Al (ordinances); B4 (campaigns).

Archives nationales du Québec (in Montreal and Quebec City)
Court records; Quebec Literary & Historical Society, P450/1.

British Library
Series: Additional Manuscripts (Haldiman Papers).

Service historique de l'Armée de Terre, France
Archives de la Guerre. Series: Al (general correspondence); XI (archives of the troop corps); Ordinances; Memoranda and surveys.

National Archives of the United States of America
Series: RG 92 (Quartermaster General); RG 94 (Adjutant General); RG 98 (U.S. Army Commands); RG 107 (Office of the Secretary of War); Service Records of Union Soldiers.

Public Archives of Nova Scotia
Series: MG 12 (General Orders); RG22 (Militia).

Public Records Office, Great Britain
Series: Colonial Office 5 (America and West Indies); 42 (Canada); 61 (Vancouver Island); 188 (New Brunswick); 194 (Newfoundland); 217 (Nova Scotia and Cape Breton); 226 (Prince Edward Island). Treasury 1 and 48. War Office 1 (In-letters); 3 (Out-letters, Commander in Chief); 7 (Out-letters, departemental); 17 (Monthly returns); 27 (Inspections); 28 (Miscellanea, Headquarters Records); 34 (Amherst Papers); 44 (Ordnance, In-letters); 55 (Ordnance - miscellanea).

In addition, we note the manuscripts kept at the following institutions: British Columbia Archives, Victoria; Clements Library, Ann Arbor; National Army Museum, London; Manitoba Archives, Winnipeg; Metropolitan Toronto Central Library; Museo Naval, Madrid; Musées de l'Armée, Paris and Salon-de-Provence; McCord Museum of Canadian History, Montreal; Library of Congress, Washington; Ontario Archives, Toronto; Royal Canadian Military Institute, Toronto; Scottish Records Office, Edinburgh.


Atlas historique du Canada, volume I: Des origines à 1800. Montreal: Université de Montréal, 1987.

The Canadian Encyclopedia. 3 vols. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1985.

Corvisier, André. Dictionnaire d'art et d'histoire militaire. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1988.

Dictionnaire biographique du Canada. Vols. 3 to 12. Quebec City: Université Laval, 1974-90.

Johnson, Michael. The Native Tribes of North America: A Concise Encyclopedia. London: Windrow & Greene, 1993.


Amherst, Jeffery. The Journal of Je ffery Amherst. Edited by J. Clarence Webster. Toronto and Chicago: 1931.

Aubert de Gaspé, Philippe. Mémoires. Quebec City: 1885 (first edition 1864).

Bell, George. Rough Notes by an Old Soldier. 2 vols. London:1867.

Bonnycastle, Richard H. Canada, as It Was, Is, and May Be. 2 vols. London: 1852.

Bouchette, Robert S.-M. Mémoires de Robert S.-M. Bouchette, 1805-1840. Collected by his son and annotated by A.-D. De Celles. Montreal: 1903.

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. Écrits sur le Canada: Mémoires - Journal - Lettres. Edited by Roland Lamontagne. Sillery: Pélican, 1993.

Bouquet, Henry. An Historical Account of the Expedition Against the Ohio Indians in the Year MDCCLXIV. London:1766.

Clode, Charles M. The Military Forces of the Crown: Their Administration and Government. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1869.

Cook, James. Journals of Captain James Cook: The Voyage of the Resolution and Discovery, 1776-1780. 3 vols. Edited by J. C. Beeglehole. Cambridge: Hakluit Society, 1967.

Cormier, Moïse. The journal of Moïse Cormier, Zouaves Pontificaux, 1868-1870. Edited by David Ross. Winnipeg: Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, 1975.

Cuthbertson, Bennett. A System for the Complete Interior Management and Oeconomy of a Battalion of Infantry. London: 1769.

Davis, R. H. The Canadian Militia: Its Organization and Present Condition. Caledonia: 1873.

Dennison, George T. Soldiering in Canada. Toronto: George Morang, 1901.

Desjardins, L. G. Précis historique du 17ième Bataillon d'infanterie de Lévis depuis sa formation en 1862 jusqu'à 1872. Lévis: 1872.

Documentary History of the Campaign upon the Niagara Frontier, 1812-1814. 9 vols. Edited by Ernest A. Cruikshank. Welland: Tribune, 1896-1908.

Faughnan, Thomas. Stirring Incidents in the Life of a British Soldier. Toronto: Hunter & Rose, 1884.

Knox, John. The Siege of Quebec and the Campaigns in North America 1757-1760. Edited by Brian Cornell. London: Folio, 1976.

Montrésor, John. Journals of Col. John Montrésor. Edited by G. D. Scull. New York: 1882.

Organisation militaire des Canadas. L'Ennemi! L'Ennemi! by A Rifleman. Quebec City: 1862.

Papineau, Amédée. Journal d'un Fils de la Liberté, réfugié aux États-Unis par la suite de l'insurrection canadienne, en 1837. 2 vols. Montreal: Étincelle, 1972-78.

Les Patriotes, 1830-1838. Edited and collected by John Hare. Montreal: Libération, 1971.

Pérez, Juan. Juan Pérez on the Northwest Coast: Six Documents of His Expedition in 1774. Edited by Howard K. Beals. Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1989.

Preston, T. R. Three Years' Residence in Canada, from 1837 to 1839. 2 vols. London: 1840.

Prieur, François-Xavier. Notes d'un condamné politique de 1838. Montreal: 1884.

Prince, John. John Prince: A Collection of Documents. Edited by R. Alan Douglas. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1980.

Revolution Remembered: Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence. Edited by John C. Dann. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Richardson, K. S. F. War of 1812. First Series. Containing a Full and Detailed Narrative of the Operations of the Right Division, of the Canadian Army. s.l.: 1842.

Russel, W. Howard. Canada: Its Defences, Condition, and Resources. London: 1865.

Sanguinet. L'invasion du Canada par les Bastonnois: Journal de M. Sanguinet. Edited by Richard Ouellet and Jean-Pierre Therrien. Quebec City: Ministère des Affaires culturelles, 1975.

Select British Documents of the Canadian War of 1812. 3 vols. Edited by William W. Wood. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1920-28.

Simcoe, John Graves. The Correspondence of Lieut. Governor John Graves Simcoe. 5 vols. Edited by E. A. Cruikshank. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1923-31.

Tolfrey, Frederic. Tol frey: Un aristocrate au Bas-Canada. Translated and edited by Paul-Louis Martin. Montreal: Boréal, 1979.

Vancouver, George. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World. 3 vols. London: 1798.

Wolseley, Garnet. The Story of a Soldier's Life. 2 vols. Westminster: A. Constable, 1903.


Allen, Robert S. His Majesty's Indian Allies: British Indian Policy in The Defence of Canada. Toronto: Dundurn, 1993.

Barratt, Glynn. Russia in Pacific Waters 1715-1825. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1981.

Barnes, Leslie W. C. S. Histoire illustrée de l'artillerie canadienne. Ottawa: Canadian War Museum, 1979.

Bernard, Jean-Paul. Les rébellions de 1837-1838. Montreal: Boréal, 1983.

Blackmore, Howard L. British Military Firearms, 1650-1860. New York: Arco, 1968.

Brandani, Massimo, Piero Crociani and Massimo Fiorentino. L'Esercito pontifcio da Castel frdardo a Porta Pia, 1860-1870. Milan: Intergest, 1976.

Burt, A. L. The United States, Great Britain and British North America from the Revolution to the Establishment of Peace after the War of 1812. New Haven: Yale, 1940.

Cameron, Christina, and jean Trudel. Québec au temps de James Patterson Cockburn. Quebec City: Garneau, 1976.

Carman, William Y. British Military Uniforms from Contemporary Pictures. New York: Arco, 1968.

Carmichael-Smyth, James. Précis of the Wars in Canada from 1755 to the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. London: Tinsley, 1862.

Castonguay, Jacques. Les Voltigeurs de Québec: Premier régiment canadien-français. Quebec City: Voltigeurs de Québec, 1987.

Chartrand, René. The French Army in the War of American Independence, 1778-1783. London: Osprey Military, 1991.
- Napoleon's Sea Soldiers. London: Osprey Military, 1990.
- Napoleon's Overseas Army. London: Osprey Military, 1989.
- Uniforms and Equipment of the American Forces in the War of 1812. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara, 1992.

Chambers, Ernest J. The Canadian Militia: A History of the Origin and Development of the Force. Montreal: Fresco, 1907.

Charbonneau, André. Le plan-relief de Québec. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1981.

Clowes, William Laird. The Royal Navy: A History, from the Earliest Times to the Present. Vols. 2 to 6. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, 1901.

Cruikshank, Ernest J. Butler's Rangers. Welland: 1893.
- The King's Royal Regiment of New York. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1931.

Cueno, John R. Robert Rogers of the Rangers. New York: Oxford, 1959.

D'Arcy, William. The Fenian Movement in the United States: 1858-1886. New York: Russel & Russel, 1971.

Deschênes, Gaston. L'année des Anglais: La côte-du-sud à l'heure de la conquête. Sillery: Septentrion, 1988.

Desloges, Yvon. Les forts de la pointe Lévy. Ottawa: Canadian Parks Service, 1991.

Dickinson, R. J. Officers' Mess: Life and Customs in the Regiments. Tunbridge Wells: Midas, 1973.

Dunnigan, Brian. Siege - 1759: The Campaign Against Niagara, Old Fort Niagara. Youngstown, N.Y.: Old Fort Niagara, 1986.

Eelking, Max von. The German Allied Troops in the North American War of Independence, 1776-1783. Translated from the German by J. G. Rosengarten. Albany: Munsell, 1893.

Elting, John R. Amateurs, To Arms! A Military History of the War of 1812. Chapel Hill: Algonquin, 1991.

Egan, Thomas J. The Halifax Volunteer Battalion and Volunteer Companies, 1859-1877. Halifax: 1888.

Facey-Crowther, David. The New Brunswick Militia, 17871867. Fredericton: New Brunswick Historical Society, 1990.

Filion, Mario. Le blockhaus de Lacolle: Histoire et architecture. Quebec City: Ministère des Affaires culturelles, 1983.

FitzGibbon, Mary Agnes. A Veteran of 1812. Toronto: William Briggs, 1894.

Forbes, A. A History of the Army Ordnance Services. Vols. 1 and 2. London: Medici Society, 1929.

Forester, C. S. The Age of Fighting Sail: The Story of the Naval War of 1812. Garden City: Doubleday, 1956.

Fortescue, John W. A History of the British Army. Vols. 3 to 12. London: Macmillan, 1911-23.

Fortin, Réal. La guerre des patriotes le long du Richelieu. Saint-jean-sur-Richelieu: Milles Roches, 1988.

Fosten, D. S. V. and B. K. The Thin Red Line. London: Windrow & Greene, 1989.

Fregault, Guy. La guerre de la conquête. Montreal: Fides, 1967.

Fry, Bruce W. "Un air de fort": Les fortifications de Louisbourg. 2 vols. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1984.

Fryer, Mary Beacock. Volunteers & Redcoats, Raiders & Rebels: A Military History of the Rebellions in Upper Canada. Toronto: Dundurn, 1987.

Graham, Gerald. Empire of the North Atlantic: The Maritime Struggle for North America. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1950.

Graves, Donald E. The Battle of Lundy's Lane on the Niagara in 1814. Baltimore: Nautical & Aviation Publishing, 1993.

Greenhous, Brereton. Semper Paratus: The History of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment), 18621977. Hamilton: RHLI Historical Association, 1977.

Gonzâlez Claverân, Virginia. La expeditiôn cientifrca de Malaspina en Nueva Espatra 1789-1794. Mexico: El Colegio de México, 1988.

Gooding, S. James. An Introduction to British Artillery in North America. Ottawa: Museum Restoration Service, 1965.

Gough, Barry M. Distant Dominion: Britain and the Northwest Coast of North America, 1579-1809. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1980.
- Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1984.
- The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of America, 1810-1914. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1971.

Gravel, Jean-Yves. L'armée au Québec (1868-1900): Un portrait social. Montreal: Boréal, 1974.

Guitard, Michelle. Histoire sociale des miliciens de la bataille de la Châteauguay. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1983.

Hardy, René. Les Zouaves. Montreal: Boréal, 1980.

Harper, J. R. The Fraser Highlanders. Montreal: Military and Maritime Museum, 1979.

Haythornthwaite, Philip J. The Napoleonic Source Book. New York: Facts On File, 1990. - Nelson's Navy. London: Osprey Military, 1993.

Higueras, Maria Dolores. NW Coast of America: Iconographic Album of the Malaspina Expedition. Madrid: Museo Naval, 1991.

Hitsman, J. Mackay. The Incredible War of 1812. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1965.

Houlding, John A. Fit for Service: The Training of the British Army, 1715-1795. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981.
- French Arms Drill of the 18th Century. Bloomfield: Museum Restoration Service, 1988.

Irving, L. Homfray. Officers of the British Forces in Canada during the War of 1812-15. Toronto: Canadian Military Institute, 1908.

Jackson, H. M. The Queen's Rangers in Upper Canada, 1792 and After. s.l., s.d.
- The Roll of the Regiments (The Active Militia). s.l., 1959.

Jarret, Dudley. British Naval Dress. London: J. M. Dent, 1960.

Johnston, A. J. B. La défense de Halifax: Artillerie, 18251906. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1981.

Kendrick, John. The Men with Wooden Feet: The Spanish Exploration of the Pacific Northwest. Toronto: NC Press, 1985.

Lacelle, Claudette. La garnison britannique dans la ville de Québec d'après les journaux de 1764 à 1840. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1979.
- La propriété militaire à Québec de 1760 à 1871. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1982.

Lagrave, Jean-Paul de. Fleury Mesplet (1734-1794): Imprimeur, éditeur, libraire, journaliste. Montreal: Fides, 1985.

Lavery, Brian. Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men and Organisation, 1793-1815. London and Annapolis: Naval Institute, 1989.

Lee, David. La bataille du moulin à vent: Novembre 1838. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1979.

Low, Charles Rathbone. Her Majesty's Navy. London: J. S. Virtue, 1893.

Mann, Michael. A Particular Duty: The Canadian Rebellions, 1837-1839. Salisbury: Michael Russel, 1986.

McConnell, David. L'Artillerie lisse britannique: Une étude technologique. Ottawa: Canadian Parks Service, 1989.

Military Uniforms in America. The Era of the American Revolution 1755-1795. Composite work under the direction of John R. Elting. San Rafael: Presidio Press, 1974.

Moogk, Peter N. Vancouver Defended: A History of the Men and Guns of the Lower Mainland Defences, 1859-1949. Surrey: Antonson, 1978.

Morton, Desmond. A Military History of Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1985.

Neuburg, Victor. Gone for a Soldier: A History of Life in the British Ranks from 1642. London: Cassel, 1989.

Nicholson, G. W. L. The Gunners of Canada: The History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. Vol. 1. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1967.
- The Fighting Newfoundlander. Government of Newfoundland, 1964.

Pariseau, Jean, and Serge Bernier. Les Canadiens français et le bilinguisme dans les Forces armées canadiennes. Tome I, 1763-1969: Le spectre d'une armée bicéphale. Ottawa: Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, 1987.

Proulx, Gilles. Entre France et Nouvelle-France. Ottawa: Marcel Broquet and Parks Canada, 1984.

Le Québec et la guerre. Composite work edited by Jean-Yves Gravel. Montreal: Boréal, 1974.

Raudzens, George. The British Ordnance Department and Canada's Canals, 1815-1855. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University, 1979.

Riling, Joseph R. The Art and Science of War in America: A Bibliography of American Imprints. Bloomfield: Museum Restoration Service, 1990.

Rioux, Christian. La présence du régiment Royal Artillery à Québec de 1759 à 1871. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1982.

Ross, David, and Grant Tyler. Canadian Campaigns, 18601870. London: Osprey Military, 1992.

Ross, David. Military Uniforms - Uniformes militaires. Saint John: New Brunswick Museum, 1980.

Sarty, Roger F. Coast Artillery 1815-1914. Bloomfield: Museum Restoration Service, 1988.

Sanchez, Joseph. Spanish Bluecoats: The Catalonian Volunteers in Northwestern New Spain, 1767-1810. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1990.

Senior, Elinor Kyte. Redcoats & Patriotes: The Rebellions in Lower Canada, 1837-38. Stittsville: Canada's Wings, 1985.

Senior, Hereward. The Last Invasion of Canada: The Fenian Raids, 1866-1870. Toronto: Dundurn, 1991.

Snider, C. H. J. Under the Red Jack: Privateers of the Maritime Provinces of Canada in the War of 1812. London: Martin Hopkinson, 1928.

Squires, W. Austin. The 104th Regiment of Foot (The New Brunswick Regiment) 1803-1817. Fredericton: Brunswick Press, 1962.

Stacey, C. P. Canada and the British Army, 1846-1871: A Study in the Practice of Responsible Government. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1963.
- Quebec, 1759: The Siege and the Battle. Toronto: Macmillan, 1959.

Stanley, George F. G. L'invasion du Canada 1775-1776. Quebec City: 1975.
- La guerre de 1812: Les opérations terrestres. Ottawa: Canadian War Museum, 1983.
- New France: The Last Phase, 1744-1760. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968.
- Nos soldats: Histoire militaire du Canada de 1608 à nos jours. French version of Canada's Soldiers. Under the direction of Serge Bernier. Montreal: Éditions de l'homme, 1980.
- Toil & Trouble: Military Expeditions to Red River. Toronto: Dundurn, 1989.

Steele, I. K. Guerillas and Grenadiers. Toronto: Ryerson, 1971.

Stewart, Charles H. The Service of British Regiments in Canada and North America. Ottawa: Department of National Defence Library, 1964.

Stotz, Charles Morse. Outposts of the War for Empire. Pittsburgh: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1985.

Strachan, Hew. From Waterloo to Balaclava: Tactics, Technology, and the British Army, 1815-1854. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1985.

Suite, Benjamin. Histoire de la milice canadienne-française, 1760-1897. Montreal: 1897.

Summers, Jack L., and René Chartrand. L'uniforme militaire au Canada, 1665-1970. Ottawa: Canadian War Museum, 1981.

Trudel, Marcel. Le régime militaire dans le gouvernement de Trois-Rivières 1760-1764. Trois-Rivières: Bien public, 1952.

Tucker, Gilbert Norman. The Naval Service of Canada: Its Official History. Vol. 1. Ottawa: National Defence, 1952.

Vincent, Elizabeth. Le Génie royal au Canada: Matériaux et techniques de construction. Ottawa: Environment Canada, Canadian Parks Service, 1993.

Watteville, H. de. The British Soldier: His Daily Life from Tudor to Modern Times. New York: Putnam, 1955,

Webber, David. A Thousand Young Men: The Colonial Volunteer Militia of Prince Edward Island, 1775-1874. Charlottetown: Prince Edward Island Museum & Heritage Foundation, 1990.

Whitfield, Carol M. Tommy Atkins: The British Soldier in Canada, 1759-1871. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1981.

Wilhelmy, Jean-Pierre. Les mercenaires allemands au Québec du XVIIIe siècle et leur apport à la population. Beloeil: Maison des mots, 1984.

Wright, Robert K. The Continental Army. Washington: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1983.


Archer, Christon I. "Spanish Exploration and Settlement of the Northwest Coast in the 18th Century," Sound Heritage, VII, 1978.

Allen, Robert S. "The British Indian Department, 17551830," Canadian Historic Sites, No. 14. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1975.

Beattie, Judith, and Bernard Pothier. "La bataille de Restigouche," Lieux historiques canadiens, No. 16. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1978.

Blanco, Richard L. "Attempts to Abolish Branding and Flogging in the Army of Victorian England Before 1881," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, XLVI, 1968.
- "The Attempted Control of Venereal Desease in the Army of Mid-Victorian England," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, XLV, 1967.
- "Army Recruiting Reforms, 1861-1867," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, XLVI, 1968.

Chartrand, René. "The Garrison at Nootka: Spanish Colonial Troops at the End of the Eighteenth Century," in Spain and the North Pacific Coast. Composite work edited by Robin Inglis. Vancouver: Vancouver Maritime Museum, 1992.
- "Winter Uniforms in Canada, 1665-1871," Military Collector & Historian, Journal of the Company of Military Historians, XLIII, 1991.

Davidson, J. A. "The Preposterous Fortress of the North: The Story of Fort Prince of Wales," Canadian Geographical Journal, October 1960.

Edwards, Joseph P. "The Militia of Nova Scotia, 17491867," Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, XVII, 1913.

Gough, Barry M. "Nootka Sound in James Cook's Pacific World," Sound Heritage, VII, 1978.

Greenough, John Joseph. "La Citadelle d'Halifax, 18251860: histoire et architecture," Lieux historiques canadiens, No. 17. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1977.

Haarmann, Albert A. "Notes on the Brunswick Troops in British Service during the American War of Independence 1776-1783," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, XLVIII, 1970.

Hancock, J. T. "The First British Combat Engineers," Royal Engineers Journal, LXXXVIII, 1974.

Lovatt, R. "Les Voltigeurs, les Fusiliers et les Artilleurs de Victoria (C.-B), 1851-1873," Journal de l'Organisation des musées militaires du Canada, VI, 1977.

Luvaas, Jay. "General Sir Patrick MacDougall, the American Civil War and the Defence of Canada," Canadian Historical Association Report, 1962.

Mackay, Daniel S. C. "Les Royal Canadian Volunteers," Journal de l'Organisation des musées militaires du Canada, VI, 1977.

McKelvie, B. A., and W. E. Ireland. "The Victoria Voltigeurs," British Columbia Historical Quarterly, XX, 1956.

McGee, Timothy J. "An Elegant Band of Music: Music in Canada in the 18th Century," International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationale d'études canadiennes, V, 1992.

Morrison, William R. "The Second Battalion, Quebec Rifles, at Lower Fort Garry," Canadian Historic Sites, no 4. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1970.

Nasatir, A. P. "The Anglo-Spanish Frontier in the Illinois Country During the American Revolution, 1779-1783," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, XXI, 1929.

Nicolai, Martin L. "A Different Kind of Courage: The French Military and the Canadian Irregular Soldier during the Seven Years' War," Canadian Historical Review, LXX, 1989.

Tascona, Bruce. "The Independent Companies of Manitoba, 1871-1884," Journal of the Military History Society of Manitoba, 1992.

Toner, Peter M. "The Military Organisation of the 'Canadian' Fenians, 1866-1870," The Irish Sword, X, 1971.

Whitfield, Carol M. "Barrack Life in the Nineteenth Century; or How and Why Tommy's Lot Improved," Material History Bulletin, XV, 1982.
- "Tommy Atkin's Family," Bulletin for the Preservation of Technology, V, 1973.


Dube, Timothy D. "The Enrolled Pensioner Scheme in Canada West, 1851-1858, with Specific Reference to the Plan at Amherstburg." Master's thesis, University of Windsor, 1982.

Graves, Donald E. "Joseph Wilcocks and the Canadian Volunteers: An Account of Political Disaffection in Upper Canada." Master's thesis, Carleton University, 1982.

Hartley, Gerald M. F. "Years of Adjustment: British Policy and the Canadian Militia, 1760-1787." Master's thesis, Queen's University, 1993.

Henderson, James L. "A Study of the British Garrison in London, Canada West (Later Ontario), 1838-1869." Master's thesis, University of Windsor, 1967.

Hitsman, J. Mackay. "Defence of Canada, 1763-1871: A Study of British Strategy." Ph.D. diss., University of Ottawa, 1964.

Jones, Oakah L. "The Spanish Occupation of Nootka Sound, 1790-1795." Master's thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1960.

Lépine, Luc. "La participation des Canadiens français à la Guerre de 1812." Master's thesis, Université de Montréal, 1986.