The Conquest

The Treaty of Paris

New France Dismembered

View Multimedia - Changing Boundaries

Caption: View Multimedia - Changing Boundaries

New France ceased to exist from that time on. Canada, Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean, as well as that part of Louisiana located to the east of the Mississippi River, were ceded to Great Britain. The other part of Louisiana, including the city of New Orleans, went to Spain, France's ally. 24 France received Martinique and Guadeloupe in exchange for a few small islands in the West Indies, as well as a few seaports in India, including Pondicherry. Because it remained interested in the lucrative fisheries of Newfoundland, France was even able to obtain the small islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon to serve as a base for its fishermen, with a right to maintain a modest garrison there. All in all, France did reasonably well for itself, but the Canadians were sacrificed.

For the Canadian officers still living on French soil, the time had come for major decisions. A few returned to Canada, but most remained in France, some retiring there, others pursuing their military careers in the French overseas forces. The Treaty of Paris thus confirmed the loss of most of the Canadian social and military elite. For the former Canadian officers who had become seigneurs on their lands, as for the rest of the Canadian population, France had become part of the past. It was the beginning of a new era, full of uncertainty and likely requiring new battles to be fought.