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Date > 1600 > 1690-1699 > 1699

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Soldier in winter campaign dress, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1690-1700

Type: Image

This is how a soldier of the Compagnies franches would have looked when on the march during the winter expedition late in the 17th century. Note his mittens, snowshoes and hooded capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

A Canadian volunteer militiaman in winter

Type: Image

From the mid-17th century, and for the next two centuries, the winter dress and equipment of Canadian volunteers hardly changed and was much the same as fur traders and voyageurs.

Site: National Defence

Parks Canada National Photo Collection

Type: Image

This impressive photo collection gives you a chance to see more than 40 000 beautiful images of Canada's national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas. Search by keyword, type of heritage area, province or territory, name of heritage area.

Site: Parks Canada

Private, Independent Companies, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 1698-1717

Type: Image

This man wears the classic red coat of the British soldier, with green cuffs, the colour associated with the independent companies. He holds a flintlock musket fitted with a 'plug' bayonet. A sword completes his armament. Independent companies were used to guard places that were not important enough to warrant a regiment. In 1698, a company was formed for St. John's, Newfoundland, where it stayed until it was made prisoner during the 1709 French capture of St. John's. In 1713, four companies were raised to garrison Nova Scotia (formerly Acadia), and the next year four more were created for Newfoundland. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

French flags, circa 1690

Type: Image

This 17th century illustration shows four French flags that would be seen at sea and on land. At upper left is the solid white flag used by the French crown (and hence by the French army and navy). At upper and lower right are two variations on the blue and white flag that was ordered for the French merchant navy in 1661. The white pennant seen in the lower left was used to help distinguish different squadrons in a French fleet. Each would fly this pennant on a different mast. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706)

Type: Image

Born Pierre Le Moyne, the Canadian-born officer known best as 'd’Iberville' was the most eminent soldier born in New France. This 19th century print is based on a contemporary portrait painted some time after Le Moyne d'Iberville was made a chevalier of the Order of Saint-Louis in 1699. The white cross of the order can be seen on his breast.

Site: National Defence

Map of the main campaigns in New France and New England

Type: Image

This map shows the theatre of war for the campaigns in New France ('Nouvelle-France') and New England ('Nouvelle-Angleterre') between 1686 and 1711.

Site: National Defence

Colonel's colour (left) and company colour (right) of the Compagnies franches de la Marine, 18th century

Type: Image

The Latin motto of the Compagnies franches de la Marine, 'Per Mare et Terras', means 'on land and sea'. The device in the centre represents a thunderbolt. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence