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Date > 1600 > 1690-1699 > 1691

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Soldier in winter campaign dress, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1690-1700

Type: Image

This is how a soldier of the Compagnies franches would have looked when on the march during the winter expedition late in the 17th century. Note his mittens, snowshoes and hooded capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Iberville leads an attack on an English fort

Type: Image

From 1686 to 1697, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706) took and retook English Hudson’s Bay Company forts and ships in four different expeditions. He is shown here leading one such attack.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Map of d'Iberville's 1686 and 1696 campaigns

Type: Image

This map shows the path taken by some of the expeditions sent from New France against English colonies in North America. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières was a young man on his first campaign in 1686 when Pierre de Troyes led 100 men overland to Hudson Bay. By 1696, d'Iberville was a famous commander in his own right. In that year he returned to Hudson Bay and also captured English settlements in Maine and Newfoundland.

Site: National Defence

Louis de Buade, Count Frontenac (1622-98)

Type: Image

There is no known contemporary portrait of Frontenac. This statue of the celebrated governor general of New France (1672-1682, 1689-1698) is from the façade of the Hôtel du Parlement in Quebec City, designed by Eugène-Étienne Taché (1836-1912). It is seen here in an early-20th century engraving.

Site: National Defence

A Canadian volunteer militiaman in winter

Type: Image

From the mid-17th century, and for the next two centuries, the winter dress and equipment of Canadian volunteers hardly changed and was much the same as fur traders and voyageurs.

Site: National Defence

Parks Canada National Photo Collection

Type: Image

This impressive photo collection gives you a chance to see more than 40 000 beautiful images of Canada's national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas. Search by keyword, type of heritage area, province or territory, name of heritage area.

Site: Parks Canada

Governor General Frontenac brandishing a war hatchet

Type: Image

Frontenac is shown during a visit to allied Indians in 1691. The war hatchet he holds was symbolic amongst eastern woodland Amerindian nations and the governor general of New France always referred to it when calling for allies to go to war.

Site: National Defence

French flags, circa 1690

Type: Image

This 17th century illustration shows four French flags that would be seen at sea and on land. At upper left is the solid white flag used by the French crown (and hence by the French army and navy). At upper and lower right are two variations on the blue and white flag that was ordered for the French merchant navy in 1661. The white pennant seen in the lower left was used to help distinguish different squadrons in a French fleet. Each would fly this pennant on a different mast. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence