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Resource Type > Image

Date > 1600 > 1690-1699

Subject > Weapons, Equipment and Fortifications

Quebec batteries firing on Phips' ships during October 1690

Type: Image

Part of Quebec's defences is shown firing upon the invaders’ ships during October 1690. The upper town was protected by a good wall with intermittent batteries. There were more defensive works up towards the Chateau Saint-Louis near Cape Diamond. In the lower town, facing the harbour, there were two strong French shore batteries armed with heavy 18 and 24-pounder naval cannon. Inland, a line of earthworks punctuated with 11 redoubts enclosed the city from the western side. This 19th century print is inaccurate in some details (for instance, the Château Saint-Louis which only had one storey in 1690) but gives a good sense of the general action. (Library and Archives Canada, C-006022)

Site: National Defence

Sir William Phips before Quebec in October 1690

Type: Image

Sir William Phips (1650-1694) is shown on the deck of one of the ships hired on credit by the New England colonies to carry an army of Massachusetts militia to Quebec. It is probably when they arrived in October 1690 that Phips and his officers realized what a formidable natural fortress Quebec really was.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

The Château Saint-Louis, 1698

Type: Image

The Château Saint-Louis at Quebec was the residence of the Governor General and the military headquarters of Canada during the French Regime. Print after a plan of 1698.

Site: National Defence

Parks Canada National Photo Collection

Type: Image

This impressive photo collection gives you a chance to see more than 40 000 beautiful images of Canada's national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas. Search by keyword, type of heritage area, province or territory, name of heritage area.

Site: Parks Canada

Private, Independent Companies, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 1698-1717

Type: Image

This man wears the classic red coat of the British soldier, with green cuffs, the colour associated with the independent companies. He holds a flintlock musket fitted with a 'plug' bayonet. A sword completes his armament. Independent companies were used to guard places that were not important enough to warrant a regiment. In 1698, a company was formed for St. John's, Newfoundland, where it stayed until it was made prisoner during the 1709 French capture of St. John's. In 1713, four companies were raised to garrison Nova Scotia (formerly Acadia), and the next year four more were created for Newfoundland. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Governor General Frontenac brandishing a war hatchet

Type: Image

Frontenac is shown during a visit to allied Indians in 1691. The war hatchet he holds was symbolic amongst eastern woodland Amerindian nations and the governor general of New France always referred to it when calling for allies to go to war.

Site: National Defence

Massachusetts troops, around 1690

Type: Image

This reconstruction shows some of the defenders of the English colony of Massachusetts, circa 1690. On the left is seen a militiaman; at left centre, an ensign is carrying a company flag of the Boston Regiment; in the middle stands an officer with sword and spontoon; at right, a cavalryman is wearing a cuirass and helmet. Reconstruction by David Rickman. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, drummer and soldier, Compagnies franches de la Marine, New France, 1685-1700

Type: Image

On the left, a sergeant wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular to sergeants of the Compagnies franches de la Marine at this time). He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. The drummer in the centre wears a uniform in the colours of the royal livery. At right, a common solder wears a grey-white uniform lined and faced with blue, the distinctive colour of the Troupes de la Marine. His hat is trimmed with imitation gold braid: a blend of brass wire and yellow cord. He is armed with a musket, bayonet and sword. Reconstructions by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

A military expedition moving by canoe

Type: Image

The rivers provided easy routes for military expeditions in New France, thanks to the birch bark canoe.

Site: National Defence