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Date > 1600 > 1680-1689 > 1685

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Louis de Buade, Count Frontenac (1622-98)

Type: Image

There is no known contemporary portrait of Frontenac. This statue of the celebrated governor general of New France (1672-1682, 1689-1698) is from the façade of the Hôtel du Parlement in Quebec City, designed by Eugène-Étienne Taché (1836-1912). It is seen here in an early-20th century engraving.

Site: National Defence

A Canadian volunteer militiaman in winter

Type: Image

From the mid-17th century, and for the next two centuries, the winter dress and equipment of Canadian volunteers hardly changed and was much the same as fur traders and voyageurs.

Site: National Defence

Parks Canada National Photo Collection

Type: Image

This impressive photo collection gives you a chance to see more than 40 000 beautiful images of Canada's national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas. Search by keyword, type of heritage area, province or territory, name of heritage area.

Site: Parks Canada

French flags, circa 1690

Type: Image

This 17th century illustration shows four French flags that would be seen at sea and on land. At upper left is the solid white flag used by the French crown (and hence by the French army and navy). At upper and lower right are two variations on the blue and white flag that was ordered for the French merchant navy in 1661. The white pennant seen in the lower left was used to help distinguish different squadrons in a French fleet. Each would fly this pennant on a different mast. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706)

Type: Image

Born Pierre Le Moyne, the Canadian-born officer known best as 'd’Iberville' was the most eminent soldier born in New France. This 19th century print is based on a contemporary portrait painted some time after Le Moyne d'Iberville was made a chevalier of the Order of Saint-Louis in 1699. The white cross of the order can be seen on his breast.

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, drummer and soldier, Compagnies franches de la Marine, New France, 1685-1700

Type: Image

On the left, a sergeant wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular to sergeants of the Compagnies franches de la Marine at this time). He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. The drummer in the centre wears a uniform in the colours of the royal livery. At right, a common solder wears a grey-white uniform lined and faced with blue, the distinctive colour of the Troupes de la Marine. His hat is trimmed with imitation gold braid: a blend of brass wire and yellow cord. He is armed with a musket, bayonet and sword. Reconstructions by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Amerindian warrior brandishing a scalp

Type: Image

This print shows a classic European vision of scalping. The process was widespread amongst both the forest and plains Amerindians, and dates back to at least the early 16th century. Scalps were viewed as trophies of war, part of a ritual act of retribution on an enemy.

Site: National Defence

A military expedition moving by canoe

Type: Image

The rivers provided easy routes for military expeditions in New France, thanks to the birch bark canoe.

Site: National Defence