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Resource Type > Image

Date > 1600

Subject > Weapons, Equipment and Fortifications > Equipment, Materials and Infrastructure

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Model of the second habitation at Quebec, circa 1625

Type: Image

Construction of this building started in May 1624. The model shows the stone structure with its two corner turrets as it was circa 1625. The habitation was abandoned in 1633 following a fire.

Site: National Defence

Mohawk warriors attack the party of Father Jogues, 1646

Type: Image

Father Isaac Jogues, Friar Jean de Lanlande and a number of Huron converts were attacked by Mohawk warriors on the Richelieu River in October 1646. Captured and taken to an Iroquois town, they were killed on October 18. The Iroquois made travel on most waterways a very dangerous endeavour at this time; the small French garrison had no effective way to counter this.

Site: National Defence

The Château Saint-Louis, 1698

Type: Image

The Château Saint-Louis at Quebec was the residence of the Governor General and the military headquarters of Canada during the French Regime. Print after a plan of 1698.

Site: National Defence

Plan of the French settlement at Isle Sainte-Croix in 1604

Type: Image

In June 1604, the French expedition under the Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain started building a trade post and settlement on an island they named Sainte-Croix, the choice being dictated by security concerns. It turned out to be an unfortunate choice, some 35 out the 79 men there perishing from scurvy in the winter of 1604-1605. There were also tense relations with Indians further south so that, in the late summer, Sainte-Croix was abandoned and the French went to built a fortified ‘Habitation’ at Port-Royal (now Annapolis-Royal, Nova Scotia).

Site: National Defence

Reconstruction of the 1605 Habitation of Port Royal

Type: Image

This reconstruction of Champlain's 1605 Habitation was opened in 1941. It is now a National Historic Site run by Parks Canada.

Site: National Defence

'Abitasion' [sic] or Habitation of Port-Royal, constructed in 1605

Type: Image

This fortified dwelling was built by Samuel de Champlain and his men in 1605. This was a replacement for an earlier structure at Saint-Croix, and was intended to take advantage of a slightly milder climate after a winter that had seen 35 of the 80 colonists die of scurvy. The building was destroyed in 1613 by English colonists from Virginia. (Library and Archives Canada, NL8760).

Site: National Defence

A military expedition moving by canoe

Type: Image

The rivers provided easy routes for military expeditions in New France, thanks to the birch bark canoe.

Site: National Defence