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Resource Type > Image

Subject > Wars, Battles and Conflicts

Date > 1800 > 1880-1889

York Redoubt, 1882

Type: Image

York Redoubt, built east of Halifax, was the first major fort guarding the harbour’s entrance. The first batteries on the site were constructed in 1793. Over the years, the site was improved. Advances in weapons technology made the site obsolete in the 1860s, and a substantial rebuilding process began, incorporating rifled muzzle loading guns. This engraving shows the Redoubt in 1882. The site is now a National Historic Site.

Site: National Defence

Officer cadet, Royal Military College of Canada, 1954

Type: Image

Except for a few details, the full dress uniform of officer cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, remained essentially the same since the college was founded in 1874. As shown in this 1954 photo, only the shakos and pith helmets worn on parade by first-class officer-cadets disappeared, replaced by pill-box caps. (Canadian Department of National Defence, ZK-2049)

Site: National Defence

Private, 65th Battalion (Mount Royal Rifles), circa 1880-1885

Type: Image

This Montreal battalion wore a dark-green uniform inspired by that of a British rifle regiment. During the early 1880s, the 65th retained the French-style shako abandoned by British rifles during the 1870s. The 65th Battalion (Mount Royal Rifles) would not be able to obtain a French title until 1902, when it was renamed the 65th Regiment Carabiniers Mont-Royal. Rifle battalions wore black equipment (instead of the white of other infantry). This man carries a Mark II Snider-Enfield short rifle with a sword bayonet fixed. The shorter 'two band' Snider was issued to rifle units and infantry sergeants. In 1885, the 65th fought with Major-General Strange's Alberta Field Force against the Cree at Frenchmen's Butte. Reconstruction by Ronald B. Volstad. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

9 pounder RML gun during the Battle of Fish Creek, 24 April 1885

Type: Image

This photograph of a gun from A Battery, Regiment of Canadian Artillery was taken during the fighting at Fish Creek on 24 April 1885. Captain James Peters of A Battery was an amateur photographer who took his camera to the North-West and took what are possibly the first photographs in history of a battle in progress. (Library and Archives Canada, C-003461)

Site: National Defence

9-inch Armstrong Rifled Muzzle-Loading gun on a traversing platform

Type: Image

This large cannon is in a coastal battery at York Redoubt National Historic Site near Halifax. This type of gun weights 12 tons (12.2 mt) and fires a projectile of 256 pounds (116 kg.) at an effective range of 2,000 yards (1829 m.). Great guns such as this one were installed in Canadian major forts from the 1860s. During the 1880s, the eight forts defending Halifax had thirty-eight 9-inch (22.8 cm.) guns as well as fifteen 10-inch (25.4 cm.), fifteen 7-inch (17.7 cm.) and nine 64-pounder (29 kg.) RML cannons ready to battle enemy warships. The mountings and the concrete ‘Moncrieff’ emplacement pit, named after its designer, were a refinement of the 1890s which allowed gunner to fire the gun over a high parapet while being well protected from enemy fire. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Battle of Cut Knife Hill, 2 May 1885

Type: Image

Three hundred and fifty Canadian militia led by Lieutenant-Colonel Otter attacked a Plains Cree war camp at dawn on 2 May 1885. The Cree, although surprised, put up a stiff fight under war chief Fine Day. When the Canadians retreated late in the day, it was the persuasive influence of chief Poundmaker that stopped the Cree warriors from pursuing their foes. Some historians believe that this saved Otter's inexperienced men from being massacred. This rather idealized view of the battle is one of a series from the 'The Canadian Pictorial and Illustrated War News.'

Site: National Defence

Gabriel Dumont, military commander of the Métis during 1885

Type: Image

Gabriel Dumont (1837-1906) was a brilliant tactician. Historians generally concede that had Dumont fully controlled Métis operations in 1885, the Canadian volunteers would have faced a much tougher campaign. This photograph probably dates from Dumont's time travelling with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show after the Rebellion. (Library and Archives Canada, PA-178147)

Site: National Defence

HMS Monarch, iron screwship with turrets, Royal Navy

Type: Image

This Royal Navy warship, launched in May 1868, was one of the first iron-built battleships fitted with turrets enclosing and rotating its four 25-ton (25.4 mt) 12-inch (30.4 cm.) guns. One of the largest and fastest battleships of its day, HMS Monarch had a displacement of 8820 tons (8962 mt), armour six to seven inches (15-18 cm) thick and a top speed of 15 knots (27.8 kph).

Site: National Defence

The Quebec Citadel, circa 1950

Type: Image

Built between 1828 and 1856, the Quebec Citadel has remained largely the same ever since, as this 1950s picture shows. It is now the regimental HQ of the Royal 22e Régiment / Royal 22nd Regiment - the famous 'Van Doos'. (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence