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Resource Type > Image

Subject > Wars, Battles and Conflicts

Date > 1700 > 1790-1799 > 1795

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Fort Chambly

Type: Image

The third fort on this site, construction began on Fort Chambly in 1709. It was made of stone and looked rather like a castle. This made it different from the low-lying, bastioned fortresses of Europe. The fort was built to be impressive and all but impregnable to Indian enemies and raiding American colonials. The fort wall facing the Richelieu River was pierced for artillery. During the War of 1812, Fort Chambly was the HQ for British and Canadian troops guarding the area south of Montreal against an advance by American armies. The complex fell into ruins during the 19th century. Its walls were stabilized in 1885 when it was made a Canadian government historic park. Recognized as a unique surviving example of military architecture, Fort Chambly was given a major restoration in the 1980s by Parks Canada. This returned the fort to its appearance of the mid-18th century.

Site: National Defence

Officers and midshipmen, Royal Navy, 1787-1812

Type: Image

This early-20th century print shows the development of Royal Navy officers' uniforms during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. The grouping to the left has the 1787-1795 uniforms, that at right the 1795-1812 uniforms. The officer in scarlet belongs to the Royal Marines, circa 1795. The Admiral (fourth from the right) is Horatio Nelson, Viscount Nelson (1758-1805). To the left stands a captain, to his right a lieutenant. Second from right is a midshipmen (naval officer in training) with the distinctive white collar patches of his rank. (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Colonel John Nairne, La Malbaie Regiment, Lower Canada Sedentary Militia, circa 1795

Type: Image

John Nairne (1731-1802) began his miltary career at age 14 by enlisting in the Scots Brigade in Dutch service. He took a lieutenant's commission in the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, fighting with Wolfe at the siege of Quebec. After the Seven Years' War, Nairne settled in Canada and became seigneur of La Malbaie. When the American Revolution broke out, the old soldier was soon back in uniform with the 1st battalion of the Royal Highland Emigrants. As usually happened with seigneurs that had military experience, Nairne became colonel of the local militia unit. The print shows him circa 1795 as a colonel in the Lower Canada Sedentary Militia.

Site: National Defence

Soldier’s shoulder belt-plate of the Royal Canadian Volunteers, 1795-1802

Type: Image

This oval brass belt-plate is the pattern issued to the Royal Canadian Volunteers. This two battalion British regular regiment was raised in Canada, and existed between 1795 and 1802. These belt-plates were used to link the two leather belts worn by British soldiers at this time, and most units had a style of plate that was particular to them. In this case, the design is fairly simple - the 'GR' cypher of King George III of Great Britain, surrounded by the unit's title 'ROYAL CANADIAN VOLUNTEER BATTN'. Portraits of the regiment’s officers show that they did not use this pattern of belt-plate, having at least two different versions of their own. (Private collection)

Site: National Defence

John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, circa 1795

Type: Image

Simcoe (1752-1806) was a British career officer who brilliantly led the Queen's Rangers (1st American Regiment), a Loyalist unit, during the American Revolutionary War. In 1791, Simcoe was appoint Lieutenant Governor of the new province of Upper Canada (now Ontario). He organized the provincial militia following the English county militia system, which proved to be very efficient. This portrait shows Simcoe in the uniform of a staff officer, and is based on a miniature given by the Simcoe family to noted Canadian antiquarian Henry Scadding. (Library and Archives Canada, C-008111)

Site: National Defence