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Resource Type > Image

Subject > Wars, Battles and Conflicts

Date > 1700 > 1760-1769 > 1769

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Fort Prince of Wales

Type: Image

This aerial view shows Fort Prince of Wales, just across the Churchill river from present-day Churchill, Manitoba. Its construction began in 1717. The fort was taken without a fight by a French expedition to Hudson Bay in 1782. It was said to be the only sizeable bastioned stone fort on the Arctic Ocean. Its walls were restored in the 1950s. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Louis XV, King of France from 1715 to 1774

Type: Image

King Louis XV of France (1710–1774) is shown wearing the royal robes. Around his neck are the collars and insignia of two orders of chivalry - the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, and the French Order of Saint-Louis. The white 8-pointed cross of the latter order was awarded to many Canadain soldiers during the French regime in Canada. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000604)

Site: National Defence

Jean-Baptiste-Philippe Testard de Montigny (1724-1786)

Type: Image

Testard de Montigny was an officer in the Compagnies franches de la Marine. He distinguished himself in raids against New England in 1746-47, and then in Ohio and in the Great Lakes region during the Seven Years' War. He was made a Chevalier de Saint Louis in 1757.

Site: National Defence

Fort Chambly

Type: Image

The third fort on this site, construction began on Fort Chambly in 1709. It was made of stone and looked rather like a castle. This made it different from the low-lying, bastioned fortresses of Europe. The fort was built to be impressive and all but impregnable to Indian enemies and raiding American colonials. The fort wall facing the Richelieu River was pierced for artillery. During the War of 1812, Fort Chambly was the HQ for British and Canadian troops guarding the area south of Montreal against an advance by American armies. The complex fell into ruins during the 19th century. Its walls were stabilized in 1885 when it was made a Canadian government historic park. Recognized as a unique surviving example of military architecture, Fort Chambly was given a major restoration in the 1980s by Parks Canada. This returned the fort to its appearance of the mid-18th century.

Site: National Defence

Grenadier, 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot, 1768-1772

Type: Image

After the Seven Year's War, the uniforms of the British army were remodelled on the Prussian style. The successful campaigns of Frederick the Great of Prussia made his troops the leaders in military fashion for a generation. The new British coat (here worn by a soldier of the 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot) was of a tighter cut than before - a style that began because impoverished Prussia had to save money, hence coats used as little cloth as possible. A more practical change was the adoption of white breeches in place of the red previously worn by most British regiments. The white cloth could be washed without the colour running. The elite grenadier companies adopted a new fur cap in place of their old cloth mitre caps. Perversely, this fashion was copied from the Austrian army, Prussia's great enemy of the 18th century. Reconstruction by P. W. Reynolds. (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Iroquois chief, 1760-1790

Type: Image

This Iroquois leader wears the mixture of native and European items that was used by eastern woodland cultures during the 18th century. Note, for instance, the European linen shirt, worn as an overall smock. Around this man's neck hangs a gorget - a gilded crescent worn by European officers when on duty. Gorgets were considered one of the more desirable gifts an Amerindian chief could receive. Among the particularly North American items seen here are the leggings (known as 'mitasses'), the scalp hair lock decorated by feathers with other hair removed from the head, the face paint and the moccasins. The result is colourful and impressive. Reconstruction by G. A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Officer, 42nd (Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot, 1768-1784

Type: Image

This man wears the full dress uniform of an officer in a Highland regiment of the British army, as established in 1768. The 42nd Foot were stationed in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia during the final years of the American Revolution. Highlanders often wore more prosaic uniforms when on campaign in North America. Trousers would replace the kilt, if supplies of tartan cloth were unavailable. This uniform, altered in small details such as the pattern of buttons, was also worn by officers of the Royal Highland Emigrants. The two battalions of the Emigrants, raised in Quebec and Nova Scotia in 1775, wore the kilt and red coat from 1776 onward. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

French flags, circa 1690

Type: Image

This 17th century illustration shows four French flags that would be seen at sea and on land. At upper left is the solid white flag used by the French crown (and hence by the French army and navy). At upper and lower right are two variations on the blue and white flag that was ordered for the French merchant navy in 1661. The white pennant seen in the lower left was used to help distinguish different squadrons in a French fleet. Each would fly this pennant on a different mast. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence