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Resource Type > Image

Subject > Wars, Battles and Conflicts

Date > 1700 > 1700-1709

Soldier, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1701-1713

Type: Image

This man belongs to the garrison of one of France's maritime colonies in North America. The Compagnies franches de la Marine of Acadia and Plaisance wore this uniform between 1701 and 1713. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Soldier in winter campaign dress, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1690-1700

Type: Image

This is how a soldier of the Compagnies franches would have looked when on the march during the winter expedition late in the 17th century. Note his mittens, snowshoes and hooded capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Fort Chambly

Type: Image

The third fort on this site, construction began on Fort Chambly in 1709. It was made of stone and looked rather like a castle. This made it different from the low-lying, bastioned fortresses of Europe. The fort was built to be impressive and all but impregnable to Indian enemies and raiding American colonials. The fort wall facing the Richelieu River was pierced for artillery. During the War of 1812, Fort Chambly was the HQ for British and Canadian troops guarding the area south of Montreal against an advance by American armies. The complex fell into ruins during the 19th century. Its walls were stabilized in 1885 when it was made a Canadian government historic park. Recognized as a unique surviving example of military architecture, Fort Chambly was given a major restoration in the 1980s by Parks Canada. This returned the fort to its appearance of the mid-18th century.

Site: National Defence

Canadian militiamen, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These men show the sort of clothing that Canadian militiamen would have worn on service during the first half of the 18th century. At centre is a Militia captain, identified by the sword he carries and the gilt gorget he wears around his neck. This officer is also equipped to fight, with a powder horn and musket. The other three figures are common soldiers, armed with muskets and wearing the style of coat known as a capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance, 1701-1713

Type: Image

At this time, the Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance wore slightly different uniforms from the Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada. This sergeant wears the red cuffs and stockings particular to his rank, and a blue coat and waistcoat instead of the grey-white coat and blue waistcoat worn by the common soldiers. Another distinction is the silver lace on a sergeant's hat. Finally, this man carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Trois-Rivières, 1704

Type: Image

Trois-Rivières was founded in 1634. In 1653, a palisade, guardhouse and redoubt were completed to provide a strong defence against the Iroquois. The Iroquois threat became far less acute by the end of the 1660s but the palisade wall was kept up. An order of the Intendant from January 1706 called for cedar logs for use in the palisade and they could be seen still in good repair in 1721. The logs were 10 to 12 inches in diameter and some 12 feet in height. They enclosed the town until 19 to 21 May 1752 when a major fire consumed several buildings and the town’s log palisade. The palisade was not rebuilt. (Library and Archives Canada, C-015784)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Amerindian warriors, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These Amerindian warriors show some of the variations of appearance to be seen in the first half of the 18th century. Despite their adoption of many European weapons and articles of clothing, the first nations preserved a resolutely Amerindian look by integrating all this with their tattoos and body paint. The central figure is a chief. Reconstruction by David Rickman. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada, 1701-1716

Type: Image

This man wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular at this time to sergeants within the Compagnies franches de la Marine). The silver lace on his cuffs is also a distinguishing mark of a sergeant. He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence