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Date > 1800 > 1890-1899

Subject > Armed Forces

Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site of Canada: End of a Long Reign

Type: Document

Wilfrid Laurier's penchant for compromise allowed him to remain in power for 15 years, earning him the nickname of the "Great Conciliator". But in 1911, this talent proved inadequate to the task of winning elections.

Site: Parks Canada

Belmont Battery at Fort Rodd Hill, British Columbia

Type: Image

Built in 1898-1900 to protect the entrance to the Royal Navy (and later the Royal Canadian Navy) base on the Pacific, the battery has been restored to its appearance during the Second World War 1939-45. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Officer cadet, Royal Military College of Canada, 1954

Type: Image

Except for a few details, the full dress uniform of officer cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, remained essentially the same since the college was founded in 1874. As shown in this 1954 photo, only the shakos and pith helmets worn on parade by first-class officer-cadets disappeared, replaced by pill-box caps. (Canadian Department of National Defence, ZK-2049)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Hamilton Field Battery, Royal Canadian Artillery, 1894

Type: Image

In 1894, the Canadian volunteer militia artillery included 17 field batteries. Field batteries were mostly armed with British 9-pounder Rifled Muzzle Loading guns, which were obsolete by the 1890s and were replaced with British 18-pounder Quick-Firing guns beginning in 1906. The uniform of the Royal Canadian Artillery was very similar to that of the British Royal Artillery except that Canadians normally wore white 'universal' pattern helmets on all occasions rather than the blue-black 'home service' helmet worn by the British gunners.

Site: National Defence

Training Camps

Type: Document

The system of militia training camps did not work well as it perpetuated the problem of paying units that arrived for training without a full complement of men. There was a high turnover of men as they left for better jobs, leaving units in a continuous cycle of training new members to replace those who left.

Site: National Defence

The 12-Pounder Field Gun - Weapons used by Canadians in the South African War

Type: Document

The 12-pounder breech-loading gun that equipped the Brigade Division, Royal Canadian Field Artillery in South Africa replaced the 9-pounder rifled muzzle loading guns that had equipped Canada's field artillery units since the 1870s.

Site: Canadian War Museum

"For Queen and Country" - Canadians and the South African War, 1899-1902

Type: Document

An article about the origins of the South African War and Canada's involvement in it. Includes reading list.

Site: Canadian War Museum

Justice at the Muzzle of a Cannon

Type: Document

During the mid 19th century, outbreaks of piracy by Amerindians were met with strong responses by the Royal Navy. In one such incident in 1864, pirates murdered the crew of a merchant vessel. When the Navy arrived and met with armed resistance, 8 villages were burned.

Site: National Defence

Command of the Militia

Type: Document

From 1867 to 1904, the militia system was commanded by British General Officers who were often in conflict with Canadian Defence Ministers over matters of appointments, budgets, and the role played by Canada’s forces in the Empire. During this period small improvements were made in the staff system and the training of officers.

Site: National Defence

Major Arthur L. ("Gat") Howard (1846-1901) - South African War

Type: Document

Major Arthur L. (Gat) Howard accepted the position of machine gun officer in the 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles (later called the Royal Canadian Dragoons). Instead of returning home from the South African War with his unit in December 1900, Howard organized the Canadian Scouts and took command of the unit.

Site: Canadian War Museum