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Date > 1800 > 1820-1829

Subject > Armed Forces > Military Command and Administration

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Roles and Functiions of Colonial Governors-Three Spheres of Influence

Type: Document

The governor’s influence extended locally, regionally and across the continent.

Site: Parks Canada

The Royal Navy

Type: Document

As an island state, Britain gave priority to its navy. The Admiralty (the appointed committee of admirals which made all strategic decisions) governed hundreds of ships worldwide. The Royal Navy used its bases in Canada to help control the Northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Site: National Defence

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Roles and Functiions of Colonial Governors-British Administration

Type: Document

In 1763, France lost Canada to England. Henceforth, British governors presided over the colony on behalf of the English king

Site: Parks Canada

New Brunswick and PEI

Type: Document

New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island lacked a strong British garrison during the mid-19th century to inspire their militia. Still, especially in New Brunswick, efforts were made to keep the institution viable, and volunteer companies were supported by the government after 1859.

Site: National Defence

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Location and Recognition- Background; Timeline

Type: Document

Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City was the capital of the French colony until 1759, when British troops conquered it. The city and the colony were brought into the British empire in 1763 by the treatise of Paris. Canada and the city of Quebec remained an English colony until the confederation of Canada in 1867

Site: Parks Canada

Nova Scotia

Type: Document

Populous Nova Scotia had the largest militia in the Maritime colonies during the early and mid-19th century. The British base at Halifax, with its naval squadron and strong fortifications, was influential as well.

Site: National Defence

Official Attempts at Change

Type: Document

The Earl of Dalhousie, attempting militia reform in the 1820s, was unhappy with the Lower Canadian militia, especially their lack of uniforms and quasi-police role in the community. He introduced British-style volunteer companies, and discriminated against Francophones.

Site: National Defence

Organization in North American Waters

Type: Document

The Royal Navy had several squadrons based in North America throughout the 19th century. The Newfoundland Squadron was a small detachment responsible for protecting the fisheries. The North American Squadron, based in Halifax, patrolled the American coastline.

Site: National Defence

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Structure and Organization of Forts & Châteaux - Two Châteaux

Type: Document

The Saint-Louis forts and châteaux site is complex. It consists of three elements: the forts, châteaux and gardens. There were a total of four forts and two Châteaux.

Site: Parks Canada

A Very Mixed Organization

Type: Document

Before 1854, the British army was governed by a complex series of overlapping bodies. Horse Guards (army headquarters) controlled most troops, but the civil Treasury ministry handled supplies, transportation and (in Canada) barracks through the Commissariat Department.

Site: National Defence