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Date > 1700 > 1760-1769

Subject > Strategy and Tactics

The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

Private, light company, 48th Regiment of Foot, 1759-1760

Type: Image

During the Seven Years' War, the British infantry regiments in North America converted one of their ten companies into a 'light company.' These men were trained to fight in the forests. Like the other units, the light infantry of the 48th Regiment of Foot modified their uniforms to match their new role. Coats were cut short to make movement easier in the bush. All of the white regimental lace was removed to make the men less conspicuous. The large tricorn hats were cut down to make caps that would stay on when moving in the woods. All in all, this uniform of 1759-1760 is much different from the one worn by the men of the 48th when they were involved in General Braddock's disasterous defeat at the Battle of Monongahela in 1755. Reconstruction by G. A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Formidable Fighters

Type: Document

The peoples of the Pacific coast were formidable fighters during the 18th and 19th centuries. Their warriors used bows and javelins, carried clubs and bone-bladed daggers, and could wear wooden armour. They preferred a mass assault, but treachery during 'friendly' meetings were not rare.

Site: National Defence

Attack on British Forts and Settlements - Battle for a Continent - War Begins

Type: Document

Description of television episode on the declaration of war by Britain against France in 1756. Discusses the first battles of the war at Forts Oswego, William Henry, and Carillon as well as at German Flats. Governor Vaudreuil and General Montcalm never agreed on strategy - Vaudreuil's war was one of attrition and Montcalm hated guerrilla warfare. This episode is part of the "Canada: A People's History" series. Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Militiamen In Combat

Type: Document

Combat for the Canadian militia during raids was a matter of surprise attack from ambush - a volley of musket fire and then a charge with hatchets. The manoeuvres and drill of a European-style battlefield were foreign to them, and there they were best behind fortifications.

Site: National Defence

The British Reach Montreal

Type: Document

In September 1760, British forces finally reached Montreal Island. Governor Vaudreuil and General Lévis withdrew their men inside the city walls.

Site: National Defence

Commemorative Intent Statement - Prince of Wales Fort

Type: Document

This page summarizes the national significance of Prince of Wales Fort according to the ministerially approved recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Prince of Wales Fort was significant in terms of the French/English rivalry over resources in the Hudson's Bay.

Site: Parks Canada

Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada: History

Type: Document

With its obvious strategic location, Signal Hill became the site of harbour defences from the 18th century through the Second World War. The last battle of the Seven Years' War in North America was fought here in 1762.

Site: Parks Canada

The Garrison Staff

Type: Document

The administrative centres of New France - Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Louisbourg and New Orleans - each had a governor with a small staff of his own. This 'garrison staff' was responsible for the military administration of the town.

Site: National Defence