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Date > 1700 > 1710-1719 > 1716

Subject > Politics and Society > War Art, Literature and Music

To the Sound of the Drummer's Beat

Type: Document

Fortified towns like Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Louisbourg were all governed by military staffs. The lives of French soldiers and Canadian civilians alike were regulated by the different drum beatings of the garrison, from La Diane at dawn to La Retraite at sunset.

Site: National Defence

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Louis XV, King of France from 1715 to 1774

Type: Image

King Louis XV of France (1710–1774) is shown wearing the royal robes. Around his neck are the collars and insignia of two orders of chivalry - the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, and the French Order of Saint-Louis. The white 8-pointed cross of the latter order was awarded to many Canadain soldiers during the French regime in Canada. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000604)

Site: National Defence

Fort Chambly

Type: Image

The third fort on this site, construction began on Fort Chambly in 1709. It was made of stone and looked rather like a castle. This made it different from the low-lying, bastioned fortresses of Europe. The fort was built to be impressive and all but impregnable to Indian enemies and raiding American colonials. The fort wall facing the Richelieu River was pierced for artillery. During the War of 1812, Fort Chambly was the HQ for British and Canadian troops guarding the area south of Montreal against an advance by American armies. The complex fell into ruins during the 19th century. Its walls were stabilized in 1885 when it was made a Canadian government historic park. Recognized as a unique surviving example of military architecture, Fort Chambly was given a major restoration in the 1980s by Parks Canada. This returned the fort to its appearance of the mid-18th century.

Site: National Defence

Canadian militiamen, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These men show the sort of clothing that Canadian militiamen would have worn on service during the first half of the 18th century. At centre is a Militia captain, identified by the sword he carries and the gilt gorget he wears around his neck. This officer is also equipped to fight, with a powder horn and musket. The other three figures are common soldiers, armed with muskets and wearing the style of coat known as a capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Amerindian warriors, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These Amerindian warriors show some of the variations of appearance to be seen in the first half of the 18th century. Despite their adoption of many European weapons and articles of clothing, the first nations preserved a resolutely Amerindian look by integrating all this with their tattoos and body paint. The central figure is a chief. Reconstruction by David Rickman. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada, 1701-1716

Type: Image

This man wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular at this time to sergeants within the Compagnies franches de la Marine). The silver lace on his cuffs is also a distinguishing mark of a sergeant. He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Gunner, train of artillery, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 1700-1716

Type: Image

Before the birth of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1722, British guns were crewed by a 'train of artillery'. Trains were raised at the beginning of each new campaign by the Board of Ordnance. The Ordnance department (which dated back to the 15th century) was a separate government department from the Army, and provided all British artillery and military engineers until 1855. The garrisons of British forts in Newfoundland and Nova Sotia included detachments of men from the train of artillery. These early gunners were unusual in one way - they wore red coats rather than the blue worn after 1722. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Drummer, Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada, 1701-1716

Type: Image

Notice the large size of the military side drum used during the 18th century. Contrary to the modern myth of the little drummer boy, European armies of this time period used adults as drummers. No child could have carried and played the instrument. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence