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Date > 1700 > 1710-1719 > 1713

Subject > Politics and Society > War Art, Literature and Music

To the Sound of the Drummer's Beat

Type: Document

Fortified towns like Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Louisbourg were all governed by military staffs. The lives of French soldiers and Canadian civilians alike were regulated by the different drum beatings of the garrison, from La Diane at dawn to La Retraite at sunset.

Site: National Defence

Soldier, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1701-1713

Type: Image

This man belongs to the garrison of one of France's maritime colonies in North America. The Compagnies franches de la Marine of Acadia and Plaisance wore this uniform between 1701 and 1713. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Fort Chambly

Type: Image

The third fort on this site, construction began on Fort Chambly in 1709. It was made of stone and looked rather like a castle. This made it different from the low-lying, bastioned fortresses of Europe. The fort was built to be impressive and all but impregnable to Indian enemies and raiding American colonials. The fort wall facing the Richelieu River was pierced for artillery. During the War of 1812, Fort Chambly was the HQ for British and Canadian troops guarding the area south of Montreal against an advance by American armies. The complex fell into ruins during the 19th century. Its walls were stabilized in 1885 when it was made a Canadian government historic park. Recognized as a unique surviving example of military architecture, Fort Chambly was given a major restoration in the 1980s by Parks Canada. This returned the fort to its appearance of the mid-18th century.

Site: National Defence

Canadian militiamen, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These men show the sort of clothing that Canadian militiamen would have worn on service during the first half of the 18th century. At centre is a Militia captain, identified by the sword he carries and the gilt gorget he wears around his neck. This officer is also equipped to fight, with a powder horn and musket. The other three figures are common soldiers, armed with muskets and wearing the style of coat known as a capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance, 1701-1713

Type: Image

At this time, the Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance wore slightly different uniforms from the Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada. This sergeant wears the red cuffs and stockings particular to his rank, and a blue coat and waistcoat instead of the grey-white coat and blue waistcoat worn by the common soldiers. Another distinction is the silver lace on a sergeant's hat. Finally, this man carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Captain Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville

Type: Image

Canadian soldier Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville (1668-1722) was the son of a famous father - Canadian tactician Joseph-François Hertel de La Fresnière (1642-1722). Hertel de Rouville led a number of spectacular raids against the British colonies during the war of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713). His most infamous exploit was the raid and massacre that destroyed Deerfield, Massachusetts in 1704. In later life, he was involved in developing the French colony on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). It is believed that the portrait upon which this print is based was painted before Hertel de Rouville left Quebec in 1713. It was altered to include the white cross of the Order of Saint Louis some time after he was made a chevalier in the order in December 1721.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Amerindian warriors, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These Amerindian warriors show some of the variations of appearance to be seen in the first half of the 18th century. Despite their adoption of many European weapons and articles of clothing, the first nations preserved a resolutely Amerindian look by integrating all this with their tattoos and body paint. The central figure is a chief. Reconstruction by David Rickman. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada, 1701-1716

Type: Image

This man wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular at this time to sergeants within the Compagnies franches de la Marine). The silver lace on his cuffs is also a distinguishing mark of a sergeant. He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence