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Date > 1700 > 1710-1719

Subject > Politics and Society > War Art, Literature and Music > Paintings and Drawings

Soldier, Compagnies franches de la Marine, 1701-1713

Type: Image

This man belongs to the garrison of one of France's maritime colonies in North America. The Compagnies franches de la Marine of Acadia and Plaisance wore this uniform between 1701 and 1713. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Louis XV, King of France from 1715 to 1774

Type: Image

King Louis XV of France (1710–1774) is shown wearing the royal robes. Around his neck are the collars and insignia of two orders of chivalry - the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, and the French Order of Saint-Louis. The white 8-pointed cross of the latter order was awarded to many Canadain soldiers during the French regime in Canada. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000604)

Site: National Defence

Canadian militiamen, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These men show the sort of clothing that Canadian militiamen would have worn on service during the first half of the 18th century. At centre is a Militia captain, identified by the sword he carries and the gilt gorget he wears around his neck. This officer is also equipped to fight, with a powder horn and musket. The other three figures are common soldiers, armed with muskets and wearing the style of coat known as a capot. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance, 1701-1713

Type: Image

At this time, the Compagnies franches de la Marine de l'Acadie et de Plaisance wore slightly different uniforms from the Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada. This sergeant wears the red cuffs and stockings particular to his rank, and a blue coat and waistcoat instead of the grey-white coat and blue waistcoat worn by the common soldiers. Another distinction is the silver lace on a sergeant's hat. Finally, this man carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Captain Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville

Type: Image

Canadian soldier Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville (1668-1722) was the son of a famous father - Canadian tactician Joseph-François Hertel de La Fresnière (1642-1722). Hertel de Rouville led a number of spectacular raids against the British colonies during the war of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713). His most infamous exploit was the raid and massacre that destroyed Deerfield, Massachusetts in 1704. In later life, he was involved in developing the French colony on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). It is believed that the portrait upon which this print is based was painted before Hertel de Rouville left Quebec in 1713. It was altered to include the white cross of the Order of Saint Louis some time after he was made a chevalier in the order in December 1721.

Site: National Defence

Amerindian warriors, first half of the 18th century

Type: Image

These Amerindian warriors show some of the variations of appearance to be seen in the first half of the 18th century. Despite their adoption of many European weapons and articles of clothing, the first nations preserved a resolutely Amerindian look by integrating all this with their tattoos and body paint. The central figure is a chief. Reconstruction by David Rickman. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Sergeant, Compagnies franches de la Marine du Canada, 1701-1716

Type: Image

This man wears a grey-white uniform with a red lining and red stockings (particular at this time to sergeants within the Compagnies franches de la Marine). The silver lace on his cuffs is also a distinguishing mark of a sergeant. He carries a halbard, the distinctive weapon of sergeants in European armies. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Drummer, Compagnies franches de la Marine d'Acadie et de Plaisance, 1701-1713

Type: Image

Wearing the livery of the King of France, this drummer wears the style of uniform seen in New France between 1701 and 1713. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Gunner, train of artillery, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 1700-1716

Type: Image

Before the birth of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1722, British guns were crewed by a 'train of artillery'. Trains were raised at the beginning of each new campaign by the Board of Ordnance. The Ordnance department (which dated back to the 15th century) was a separate government department from the Army, and provided all British artillery and military engineers until 1855. The garrisons of British forts in Newfoundland and Nova Sotia included detachments of men from the train of artillery. These early gunners were unusual in one way - they wore red coats rather than the blue worn after 1722. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence