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Date > 1600 > 1680-1689 > 1683

Subject > Strategy and Tactics > Fortifications

The Garrison Staff

Type: Document

The administrative centres of New France - Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Louisbourg and New Orleans - each had a governor with a small staff of his own. This 'garrison staff' was responsible for the military administration of the town.

Site: National Defence

Conflicting Strategic Interests

Type: Document

French strategy in Acadia and Newfoundland centred around controlling access to the St. Lawrence River. Competition with Britain and her American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries led to the fortification and garrisoning of the region.

Site: National Defence

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Structure and Organization of Forts & Chateaux- Four Forts

Type: Document

The Saint-Louis forts and châteaux site is complex. It consists of three elements: the forts, châteaux and gardens. There were a total of four forts and two Châteaux

Site: Parks Canada

European Tactics: Impractical In Canada

Type: Document

French officers realized that the battlefield tactics of European warfare, dictated by the limited effectiveness of contemporary firearms, would not be enough to defend Canada against an attach by the British. There were not enough defenders to overcome an attack in this way.

Site: National Defence

The Military Shift Westwards

Type: Document

By the end of the 17th Century, Montreal had replaced Quebec as the military centre of Canada. At the hub of several inland waterways, it became the centre of a military expansion west and south. A series of forts were built on the Great Lakes to protect French interests.

Site: National Defence

Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada: Defending Québec, Capital of New France: Lesson Plan

Type: Document

Join a French soldier, Vadeboncoeur, and explore the history of Quebec's defense and fortifications. This journey into the past will have your students "defending Québec" during three different periods: 1645, 1690 and 1745.

Site: Parks Canada

Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada

Type: Document

This historic site celebrates the rich communications and military history of Signal Hill and sits amidst a spectacular view of St. John's and the sea.

Site: Parks Canada

Placentia, Newfoundland

Type: Document

Both Great Britain (in 1651 at St. John's) and France (in 1660 at Placentia) established naval bases in Newfoundland to support their fishing fleets on the Grand Banks. The French garrison mutinied, and the base was virtually ungarrisoned until 1687.

Site: National Defence

The Strategic Defence Of Canada

Type: Document

Canada in the early 1680s faced imminent conflict with the British as well as ongoing battles with the Iroquois. To preserve the colony, good fortifications in good condition were essential. Unfortunately, existing fortifications were poorly cared for or very weak.

Site: National Defence

The Château Saint-Louis and its fort at Quebec in 1683

Type: Image

The walls of the fort on Cap-Diamant were built in 1636 and stood until they were torn down in 1693. This contemporary print of 1683 shows the first Château Saint-Louis standing within the walls. It was built in 1647 and demolished in 1694 to build a larger building of the same name. In 1690, the second Château was the site of Count Frontenac’s celebrated response to a summons to surrender: "I will reply from the muzzle of my cannons". During the 1690 siege, the fort acted as the keystone of Quebec’s defences. The houses on the right side of this print border the narrow way down to the Lower Town, now called Petit-Champlain street.

Site: National Defence