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Date > 1600 > 1660-1669 > 1665

Subject > Politics and Society > War Art, Literature and Music

Drummer, régiment de Carignan-Salières, 1665-1668

Type: Image

This reconstruction by Michel Pétard shows a drummer of the régiment de Carignan-Salières during the regiment's service in New France. He is wearing the livery of the princes of Carignan. The Carignan coat of arms is painted on his drum; the central shield of the arms shows a white cross on a red field. The drummer's role was to communicate the orders of his commander through patterns of drum beats. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Matchlock musket, circa 1665

Type: Image

This is the sort of weapon that the men of the régiment de Carignan-Salières carried during their service in Canada. Squeezing the trigger lever (seen sticking out below the weapon) made the serpentine (the curved metal arm at right) snap downwards. Attached to the top of the serpentine (but not seen here) would be a slowly-burning piece of string called a 'slow match'. When the serpentine snapped down, the burning match would drop into the priming pan (at centre). In this small depression sat a small amount of gunpowder. This would explode when the match hit it, and the explosion would carry inside the matchlock's barrel, setting off a second charge of gunpowder. This final explosion would fire a bullet down the barrel (part of which is seen at right). This process could go wrong in a number of ways, but was very noisy and impressive when it worked. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Iroquois warriors lurking near French settlements during the 1650s

Type: Image

Until the 1660s, especially in the Montreal area, no one in the French settlements really felt quite safe from surprise attacks by hostile Iroquois warriors. Many Canadian settlers, including women, learned to handle firearms during the 1650s.

Site: National Defence

Warning bell, 1660s

Type: Image

Because of the constant Iroquois surprise attacks on settlers at Montreal between 1660 and 1665, the nursing nuns at the hospital also kept a lookout and would ring their bell to give the alarm whenever they spotted something suspicious.

Site: National Defence

Officer and soldiers, régiment de Carignan-Salières, 1665-1668

Type: Image

This reconstruction shows an officer and men of the régiment de Carignan-Salières during their service in New France. The common soldiers at left and right carry muskets. Hanging from their shoulder belts are the powder flasks known as 'the Twelve Apostles'. The officer (centre) carries a half-pike and wears the white sash of a French officer around his waist. Reconstruction by Francis Back. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Guardsman, bodyguard of the Marquis de Tracy, 1665-1667

Type: Image

This man-at-arms is one of 17 personal bodyguards responsible for the Marquis de Tracy between 1665 and 1667 during his time as Governor General of New France. By specific decree of the King, de Tracy's guard wore tabards similar to those of the Musketeers of the Royal Guard. These were blue, lined with red and decorated with white crosses and trim. This is the costume made famous in the novel 'The Three Musketeers' by Alexandre Dumas. Reconstruction by Michel Pétard. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Officer with regimental colour, régiment de Carignan-Salières, 1665

Type: Image

The regiment's Colours were in the livery colours of the Prince of Carignan which were red lined with blue. The regimental uniform was brown with grey facings. Print issued on the 300th anniversary of the founding of Trois-Rivières in 1934.

Site: National Defence

French flags, circa 1690

Type: Image

This 17th century illustration shows four French flags that would be seen at sea and on land. At upper left is the solid white flag used by the French crown (and hence by the French army and navy). At upper and lower right are two variations on the blue and white flag that was ordered for the French merchant navy in 1661. The white pennant seen in the lower left was used to help distinguish different squadrons in a French fleet. Each would fly this pennant on a different mast. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706)

Type: Image

Born Pierre Le Moyne, the Canadian-born officer known best as 'd’Iberville' was the most eminent soldier born in New France. This 19th century print is based on a contemporary portrait painted some time after Le Moyne d'Iberville was made a chevalier of the Order of Saint-Louis in 1699. The white cross of the order can be seen on his breast.

Site: National Defence