History Browser

Search Results

Date > 1600 > 1660-1669

Subject > Politics and Society > Industry and Commerce

The French And British Navies

Type: Document

Both Britain and France needed strong navies to protect their coasts, fishing fleets and colonies. The peak of French naval power was during the 1690s, when it dominated the coasts of England. Defeated in 1692, the French navy declined in quality and strength from that point on.

Site: National Defence

Royal Control Replaces Private Enterprise

Type: Document

When King Louis XIV of France reached his majority, he started a wave of reforms in France. The colonies, too, saw changes, with the Crown taking control from the private companies that had once held monopolies.

Site: National Defence

Dollard's Expedition Surprised

Type: Document

A party of men under Dollard des Ormeaux, commander of the Montreal garrison, was surprised by a much larger group of Iroquois. Besieged at a disused Algonquin fort at Long-Sault on the Ottawa River, the Frenchmen and their Huron allies were wiped out.

Site: National Defence

Conflicting Strategic Interests

Type: Document

French strategy in Acadia and Newfoundland centred around controlling access to the St. Lawrence River. Competition with Britain and her American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries led to the fortification and garrisoning of the region.

Site: National Defence

The Struggle Continues

Type: Document

After months of skirmishes and attempts at peace talks, the Marquis de Tracy led a second large expedition into Iroquois territory in September 1666. Although the Iroquois could not be caught, their villages and crops were burned. Faced with starvation and trading competition, the Iroquois leaders signed a peace treaty to allow them to rebuild their strength.

Site: National Defence

One Big Family

Type: Document

There was a close liaison between the officers and the commercial class in New France. Marriage alliances cemented families together, and a kind of colonial military caste began to form in the colony in the eighteenth century.

Site: National Defence

Peace

Type: Document

The campaigns of the Régiment Carignan-Salières gave the colony of New France a chance to grow. Free from constant Iroquois attacks, the colony was able to open a rich fur trade with the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Algonquians.

Site: National Defence

Navy Archers

Type: Document

Not to be confused with the archers of the Marechaussee, Navy archers were escorts, bodyguards and armed agents of the Intendant, the chief financial administrator of a French province or colony. They arrived in New France when the first Intendant was appointed in 1665.

Site: National Defence

A "Royal" Garrison

Type: Document

From 1668 through the early 1680s, the French royal garrison declined in strength. As the French strength declined, the Iroquois began to think again of war, and the diplomatic skills of Count Frontenac were much needed to keep the peace. When conflict finally broke out in 1682, Governor de La Barre was very short of professional soldiers.

Site: National Defence

A Spanish Ocean

Type: Document

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the European wars that had touched the eastern coasts of North and South America left the Pacific untroubled. From the European point of view, the region was largely unexplored, despite being bordered by Spanish colonies.

Site: National Defence