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Date > 1600 > 1600-1609

Subject > Strategy and Tactics

Champlain's famous fight on 30 July 1609 against the Iroquois Indians as interpreted in a late 19th century print

Type: Image

When Champlain took part in a 1609 Huron expedition against the Iroquois, he began a contest between two ways of warfare that lasted centuries. The combination of armour and firearms was rapidly understood and used to advantage by early French soldiers in Canada. By contrast, the Amerindians evolved furtive tactics and rapid movements which eventually proved to be the best in a wilderness environment.

Site: National Defence

The European Failure

Type: Document

Unlike the Spanish Central America, Europeans were unable to successfully colonize North America in the 16th Century. Amerindian guerrilla tactics combined with a cold and hostile land to frustrate the newcomers. Nevertheless, North America became a theatre of war for European conflicts.

Site: National Defence

Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada: As Seen Through Your Eyes: Lesson Plan

Type: Document

What was life like in Port-Royal, Acadia, and what was the significance of the success of this small colony? This learning activity offers the opportunity to explore the trials and successes of this small group of French colonists from the perspective of one of its members.

Site: Parks Canada

Quebec

Type: Document

A second colony at Quebec, led by Champlain, saw much struggle. It changed hands, first to the English, then to a new French trading company. Attempts were made to fortify and strengthen the settlement.

Site: National Defence

Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada: On-Line Guided Tour

Type: Document

Upon entering, we see a series of self-contained working and living areas surrounding an interior courtyard that has a well in the centre. The steep pitched roofs are typical of the Norman architecture of the period.

Site: Parks Canada

Plan of the French settlement at Isle Sainte-Croix in 1604

Type: Image

In June 1604, the French expedition under the Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain started building a trade post and settlement on an island they named Sainte-Croix, the choice being dictated by security concerns. It turned out to be an unfortunate choice, some 35 out the 79 men there perishing from scurvy in the winter of 1604-1605. There were also tense relations with Indians further south so that, in the late summer, Sainte-Croix was abandoned and the French went to built a fortified ‘Habitation’ at Port-Royal (now Annapolis-Royal, Nova Scotia).

Site: National Defence

Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada

Type: Document

This historic site celebrates the rich communications and military history of Signal Hill and sits amidst a spectacular view of St. John's and the sea.

Site: Parks Canada

Acadia

Type: Document

The first permanent French colony was in Acadia. It had good relations with the local Amerindians, but suffered from struggles with England.

Site: National Defence

Reconstruction of the 1605 Habitation of Port Royal

Type: Image

This reconstruction of Champlain's 1605 Habitation was opened in 1941. It is now a National Historic Site run by Parks Canada.

Site: National Defence

Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada: History

Type: Document

In 1603, a French gentleman, Pierre Dugua de Mons, received a fur trade monopoly for a large area between the 40th and 45th parallel in northeastern North America on condition he establish a colony there.

Site: Parks Canada