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The British Reach Montreal

Type: Document

In September 1760, British forces finally reached Montreal Island. Governor Vaudreuil and General Lévis withdrew their men inside the city walls.

Site: National Defence

Desertion

Type: Document

Desertion to the king's enemies was considered the most serious crime a soldier could commit. It did take place in New France, but at a much lower rate than in Europe because of the difficulties posed by the country separating New France from the British colonies

Site: National Defence

A New Way of War

Type: Document

Expeditions could perform long-distance raids into enemy territory, travelling light and using canoes or sleds and snowshoes according to the season. The commanders of such parties had to be diplomats, since the Amerindians involved were allies and could not be commanded.

Site: National Defence

The Crossing

Type: Document

British troops crossing the Atlantic during the 18th and 19th centuries were never comfortable. Transports were very crowded, with men sleeping 4 to a bunk. If bad weather prevented exercise on deck, epidemics were a real possibility. By sail, the trip took 2 or 3 months.

Site: National Defence

General Amherst’s army passes the rapids at Cascades near Montreal, 1760

Type: Image

The passage of the British army through the rapids on the St. Lawrence at Cascades was costly. Fiftyfive boats were lost, and 84 men killed. This force under General Jeffery Amherst, closing in from the west during the summer of 1760, was one of three British armies converging on Montreal, the last French stronghold in Canada. This watercolour was drawn by an officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery who accompanied the army. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000577)

Site: National Defence

Canadian Voyageurs

Type: Document

An essential part of the Canadian tactical system was the 'voyageur' - a type of militiaman responsible for transporting goods rather than fighting. Canoes carried supplies for hundreds of men during journeys of up to several months.

Site: National Defence

A military expedition moving by canoe

Type: Image

The rivers provided easy routes for military expeditions in New France, thanks to the birch bark canoe.

Site: National Defence