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An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

The Tide Turns Against New France

Type: Document

In 1758, French attempts to halt General Forbes' British army were not enough to hold the Ohio Valley, and Fort Duquesne had to be blown up. Earlier that summer, Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario had been taken by Americans. Calls for help fell on deaf ears in France, in trouble in Europe.

Site: National Defence

Scene of daily life at Fort Beauséjour, around 1753

Type: Image

This view of the interior of Fort Beauséjour shows some of the activities that took place there just before the Seven Years' War. In the foreground, men are moving supplies. In the centre, an officer talks with a missionary who accompanies a pair of Abenakis. A left, a detachment of French soldiers escorts an English deserter. Reconstruction by Lewis Parker. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

General Montcalm Takes Oswego

Type: Document

In May of 1755, further reinforcements drawn from the French metropolitan army arrived in Canada. They were led by the mercurial Marquis de Montcalm, whose first action in the colony was to lead a successful European-style siege of the British forts defending Oswego.

Site: National Defence

A Deliberate Advance

Type: Document

The Ohio Valley was the third British objective in 1758. A large army of American militia and British regulars advanced westwards, building supply depots and fortifications as it went. General Forbes was determined to avoid the fate that befell Braddock's men in 1755.

Site: National Defence

Interior view of the Navy warehouses, around the mid­eighteenth century

Type: Image

This mid-18th century Spanish print gives an impression of the sort of storehouses that were necessary to support the building of warships, such as took place at Quebec between 1739 and 1759. Similar facilities would have existed at Louisbourg to supply the needs of French warships stationed there. (Museo Naval, Madrid)

Site: National Defence

Engineering and Naval Construction

Type: Document

Thanks to its supplies of wood and iron ore, Canada was the site of a shipyard building ships for the French Navy from 1739. A series of warships and transports were built. This site of a major shipyard in a colony was most unusual for the period.

Site: National Defence

An Abortive Attempt Against Fort Edward

Type: Document

In the summer of 1755, the Baron de Dieskau led a French/Canadian/Amerindian force into the Champlain Valley to forestall an American attack towards Montreal. Dieskau's attempt to cut off the enemy from their supply line was a failure, in part due to reluctance by his Mohawk allies.

Site: National Defence

A New Way of War

Type: Document

Expeditions could perform long-distance raids into enemy territory, travelling light and using canoes or sleds and snowshoes according to the season. The commanders of such parties had to be diplomats, since the Amerindians involved were allies and could not be commanded.

Site: National Defence

The Cooking Pot

Type: Document

Soldiers of the Troupes de la Marine were divided into groups of seven for meals. Each 'plat' would have its own iron cooking pot and ladle. Food would be eaten out of the common pot.

Site: National Defence