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A Strategic Problem

Type: Document

During the rest of the 1690s, the Iroquois and French traded raids. The Iroquois settlements suffered greatly, while the Amerindians felt they were being poorly supported by their English allies. Exhausted, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with France in 1701.

Site: National Defence

A New Way of War

Type: Document

Expeditions could perform long-distance raids into enemy territory, travelling light and using canoes or sleds and snowshoes according to the season. The commanders of such parties had to be diplomats, since the Amerindians involved were allies and could not be commanded.

Site: National Defence

The Cooking Pot

Type: Document

Soldiers of the Troupes de la Marine were divided into groups of seven for meals. Each 'plat' would have its own iron cooking pot and ladle. Food would be eaten out of the common pot.

Site: National Defence

A Very Mixed Organization

Type: Document

Before 1854, the British army was governed by a complex series of overlapping bodies. Horse Guards (army headquarters) controlled most troops, but the civil Treasury ministry handled supplies, transportation and (in Canada) barracks through the Commissariat Department.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Voyageurs

Type: Document

An essential part of the Canadian tactical system was the 'voyageur' - a type of militiaman responsible for transporting goods rather than fighting. Canoes carried supplies for hundreds of men during journeys of up to several months.

Site: National Defence

The Board of Ordnance - a Separate Fiefdom

Type: Document

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Board of Ordnance was a separate government department. It supplied weapons and ammunition to the army and Royal Navy, and built fortifications and all other military buildings. It was also responsible for the Royal Artillery and the Royal Engineers.

Site: National Defence

Lodging with the Habitants

Type: Document

Many soldiers lived with (or were 'billeted' upon) private families in New France. Unlike in France itself, this imposition was not greatly resented because workers were scarce in the colony.

Site: National Defence