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British Fleet Lifts the Siege

Type: Document

Despite having won a battle outside the city in April 1760, the French army was unable to retake Quebec. General Murray, commanding the British defenders, refused to give up. A siege began for control of the city, but a British fleet arrived with more men, ending the contest.

Site: National Defence

An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

The Tide Turns Against New France

Type: Document

In 1758, French attempts to halt General Forbes' British army were not enough to hold the Ohio Valley, and Fort Duquesne had to be blown up. Earlier that summer, Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario had been taken by Americans. Calls for help fell on deaf ears in France, in trouble in Europe.

Site: National Defence

Scene of daily life at Fort Beauséjour, around 1753

Type: Image

This view of the interior of Fort Beauséjour shows some of the activities that took place there just before the Seven Years' War. In the foreground, men are moving supplies. In the centre, an officer talks with a missionary who accompanies a pair of Abenakis. A left, a detachment of French soldiers escorts an English deserter. Reconstruction by Lewis Parker. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

General Montcalm Takes Oswego

Type: Document

In May of 1755, further reinforcements drawn from the French metropolitan army arrived in Canada. They were led by the mercurial Marquis de Montcalm, whose first action in the colony was to lead a successful European-style siege of the British forts defending Oswego.

Site: National Defence

A Deliberate Advance

Type: Document

The Ohio Valley was the third British objective in 1758. A large army of American militia and British regulars advanced westwards, building supply depots and fortifications as it went. General Forbes was determined to avoid the fate that befell Braddock's men in 1755.

Site: National Defence

A Dead-End Situation

Type: Document

In 1760, the French position in New France was desperate, with three enemy armies due to converge on Montreal in the spring. French general Lévis decided that the only hope was to retake Quebec from the British before the invaders were reinforced.

Site: National Defence

A Strategic Problem

Type: Document

During the rest of the 1690s, the Iroquois and French traded raids. The Iroquois settlements suffered greatly, while the Amerindians felt they were being poorly supported by their English allies. Exhausted, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with France in 1701.

Site: National Defence

Fort Cumberland Defended

Type: Document

The American rebels' attack on Nova Scotia came in November 1776, against Fort Cumberland. Colonel Goreham's determined defence of the run-down fortification was enough to hold it until reinforcements arrived. This was the last serious threat to the colony from the rebels.

Site: National Defence

Carleton Rallies the Defenders

Type: Document

In November 1775, Governor Carleton organized the defenders of Quebec City to face a siege by the American rebels. British regular troops were few in number. Canadian militia, from both the anglophone and francophone communities, made up the majority of the defenders

Site: National Defence