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A Strategic Problem

Type: Document

During the rest of the 1690s, the Iroquois and French traded raids. The Iroquois settlements suffered greatly, while the Amerindians felt they were being poorly supported by their English allies. Exhausted, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with France in 1701.

Site: National Defence

The Struggle Continues

Type: Document

After months of skirmishes and attempts at peace talks, the Marquis de Tracy led a second large expedition into Iroquois territory in September 1666. Although the Iroquois could not be caught, their villages and crops were burned. Faced with starvation and trading competition, the Iroquois leaders signed a peace treaty to allow them to rebuild their strength.

Site: National Defence

The Regiment Departs

Type: Document

Between April and September 1665, the Régiment Carignan-Salières crossed the Atlantic to Canada. The unit was organized into 20 companies, each with officers and non-commissioned officers to lead it.

Site: National Defence

Mixed Results

Type: Document

The first expedition by the Régiment Carignan-Salières was a fiasco, but it did prove that winter expeditions were possible. Important lessons about food, clothing and experienced guides were learned that would serve the French in Canada well later on.

Site: National Defence

Guerrilla Warfare In The Heart Of The French Colony

Type: Document

With Huronia destroyed and Fort Richelieu burnt, the centre of the French colony started to suffer badly from Iroquois raids. Attempts to strengthen the garrison, and also to found a mission among the Iroquois were failures.

Site: National Defence

A New Way of War

Type: Document

Expeditions could perform long-distance raids into enemy territory, travelling light and using canoes or sleds and snowshoes according to the season. The commanders of such parties had to be diplomats, since the Amerindians involved were allies and could not be commanded.

Site: National Defence

An Attack on the Iroquois

Type: Document

In an attempt to strike back at the Iroquois, Governor de Courcelles led a winter expedition to attack native villages south along the Richelieu River. The plan was a failure, with the French troops having to seek shelter and food from the Dutch settlement at Schenectady to avoid starvation.

Site: National Defence

The Cooking Pot

Type: Document

Soldiers of the Troupes de la Marine were divided into groups of seven for meals. Each 'plat' would have its own iron cooking pot and ladle. Food would be eaten out of the common pot.

Site: National Defence

A Very Mixed Organization

Type: Document

Before 1854, the British army was governed by a complex series of overlapping bodies. Horse Guards (army headquarters) controlled most troops, but the civil Treasury ministry handled supplies, transportation and (in Canada) barracks through the Commissariat Department.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Voyageurs

Type: Document

An essential part of the Canadian tactical system was the 'voyageur' - a type of militiaman responsible for transporting goods rather than fighting. Canoes carried supplies for hundreds of men during journeys of up to several months.

Site: National Defence