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Subject > Weapons, Equipment and Fortifications > Equipment, Materials and Infrastructure

Date > 1700 > 1780-1789

Fears of French Fleets

Type: Document

France's 1778 entry into the American Revolutionary War spread fear in several places. The Maritimes worried about a French fleet disrupting shipping in the Gulf of St. Lawrence or attacking Newfoundland. In Quebec, officials worried about Canadian reaction to a French landing.

Site: National Defence

Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Site of Canada: A Multi-Purpose Structure

Type: Document

The site at Coteau-du-Lac represented a major point of transit for British military logistics efforts. Between 1781 and 1814, the army developed large-scale infrastructures on the site, which testify to the importance the colonial authorities attached to improving and protecting transportation and communications along the route linking Montréal and Kingston.

Site: Parks Canada

Housing

Type: Document

British army barracks during the 18th and 19th centuries were laid out like crowded dormitories. Each room housed a company (50-100 men) plus any wives. Beds or bunks ran along the sides, with tables and benches down the centre. In Canada, a cast-iron stove heated the room.

Site: National Defence

'Cat of nine tails' whip

Type: Image

The ‘cat of nine tails’ was a whip used to flog soldiers. This one was used in the British 83rd Regiment of Foot. The length of the wooden stick was 43cm (1' 5"), its tails 53cm (1' 9"), and it weighed 141,75 g. (5 ounces). (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

The French Revolution

Type: Document

With war going on in Europe, Quebec was divided into two colonies in 1791. Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) and Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), each had its own elected assembly. A regular colonial corps, the Queen's Rangers, was raised for duty in Upper Canada.

Site: National Defence

Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Site of Canada: The First Lock Canal in North America

Type: Document

The construction of the canal at Coteau-du-Lac began in 1779 under the command of William Twiss.

Site: Parks Canada

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Location and Recognition- Background; Timeline

Type: Document

Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City was the capital of the French colony until 1759, when British troops conquered it. The city and the colony were brought into the British empire in 1763 by the treatise of Paris. Canada and the city of Quebec remained an English colony until the confederation of Canada in 1867

Site: Parks Canada

Barracks

Type: Document

The British garrison in Canada lived almost exclusively in barracks during the 18th and 19th centuries, unlike troops during the earlier French regime. This made British troops a somewhat isolated society within the colony as a whole. The authorities felt that this improved discipline.

Site: National Defence

The Crossing

Type: Document

British troops crossing the Atlantic during the 18th and 19th centuries were never comfortable. Transports were very crowded, with men sleeping 4 to a bunk. If bad weather prevented exercise on deck, epidemics were a real possibility. By sail, the trip took 2 or 3 months.

Site: National Defence

Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada: Structure and Organization of Forts & Châteaux - Two Châteaux

Type: Document

The Saint-Louis forts and châteaux site is complex. It consists of three elements: the forts, châteaux and gardens. There were a total of four forts and two Châteaux.

Site: Parks Canada