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British Fleet Lifts the Siege

Type: Document

Despite having won a battle outside the city in April 1760, the French army was unable to retake Quebec. General Murray, commanding the British defenders, refused to give up. A siege began for control of the city, but a British fleet arrived with more men, ending the contest.

Site: National Defence

Valenciennes

Type: Document

The last battle of the Canadian Corps occurred at Valenciennes where the Canadian artillery pulverized the German defences. On the day of the Armistice Canadians entered the town of Mons, Belgium, the same place where the war had begun.

Site: National Defence

Fort Beausejour Taken

Type: Document

When war began in 1755, the British took the offensive immediately in Nova Scotia, attacking and capturing both French forts on the disputed isthmus of Chignectou. Fort Beauséjour fell on June 17 after a short formal siege, while Fort Gaspareau was taken shortly after without a fight.

Site: National Defence

Artillery Developments in Canada

Type: Document

The role and importance of artillery to the Canadian Army evolved as artillery technology improved. Canadian gunners began to use artillery in 1871 with 9-pound muzzle loaders and, by 1918, had adopted 18-pound field guns and 60-pound howitzers.

Site: National Defence

Attack at Montmorency Fails

Type: Document

The British siege of Quebec began in the summer of 1759 with General Wolfe's army establishing a camp on the Île d'Orléans south of Quebec. Then it began trying to force its way onto the north shore of the St. Lawrence. An attack near Montmorency Falls on July 31, 1759 failed.

Site: National Defence

Niagara ( Butlersburg/West Niagara/Lennox/Newark/Niagara-on-the-Lake )

Type: Document

Niagara was the first permanent Anglo settlement in present-day Ontario. From 1792 until 1796 it was the capital of Upper Canada. It was important for the transhipment of goods in North America, developed as a farming community to serve the needs of the British garrison and the growing refugee population, and a vigorous commercial area. Because of Niagara's importance, eventually the entire length of the Niagara River was defended by artillery batteries.

Site: Parks Canada

Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada: History

Type: Document

With its obvious strategic location, Signal Hill became the site of harbour defences from the 18th century through the Second World War. The last battle of the Seven Years' War in North America was fought here in 1762.

Site: Parks Canada

The Siege of Fort Erie

Type: Document

After losing at Lundy's Lane in July 1814, the Americans fell back to Fort Erie, and were besieged there. Both sides took heavy losses during the August-September siege, and fought with great determination. The British fell back in defeat, but the Americans withdrew as well in November.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Preparations and the Assault on the Ridge

Type: Document

Canadians undertook extensive preparations for the attack on Vimy Ridge, including applying lessons from the British and the French in the areas of new infantry tactics, artillery utilization and thorough planning. The assault succeeded beyond expectations and helped establish Canada’s reputation in fielding shock troops - soldiers specially trained and armed to lead an attack.

Site: National Defence

Artillery

Type: Document

Artillery technology underwent some radical changes in the 19th century with improvements in rifling, breech-loading mechanisms, greater range, and better ammunition. The biggest change occurred during the First World War with the shift from open sight firing to indirect fire. Trench warfare restored the prominence of artillery that had been eclipsed by rifled infantry fire.

Site: National Defence