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British Fleet Lifts the Siege

Type: Document

Despite having won a battle outside the city in April 1760, the French army was unable to retake Quebec. General Murray, commanding the British defenders, refused to give up. A siege began for control of the city, but a British fleet arrived with more men, ending the contest.

Site: National Defence

Weapons

Type: Document

This section illustrates a selection of firearms and bladed weapons used by British and Canadian military units during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Site: National Defence

Compagnies franches de la Marine (Warships)

Type: Document

The names of troops raised by the French Ministry of Marine often confuse people. There were separate units of Compagnies franches de la Marine to serve aboard warships. These troops had nothing to do with the Compagnies franches found in Canada.

Site: National Defence

Gunner, Royal Regiment of Artillery, 1751-1764

Type: Image

This British artilleryman wears the blue coat of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Gunners in most European armies wore dark-coloured clothing to disguise the dirt and grime that soon disfigured anyone firing artillery using gunpowder propellant. The yellow lace was added to the uniforms in 1750, and this pattern of clothing was worn from 1751 to 1764. Reconstruction by Derek Fitzjames. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Formidable Fighters

Type: Document

The peoples of the Pacific coast were formidable fighters during the 18th and 19th centuries. Their warriors used bows and javelins, carried clubs and bone-bladed daggers, and could wear wooden armour. They preferred a mass assault, but treachery during 'friendly' meetings were not rare.

Site: National Defence

The Budding Explorer: Samuel de Champlain: Activity

Type: Interactive Resource

Help the ghost of Samuel de Champlain regain his memory of Canada`s national historic sites in an interactive game for younger children.

Site: Parks Canada

Niagara ( Butlersburg/West Niagara/Lennox/Newark/Niagara-on-the-Lake )

Type: Document

Niagara was the first permanent Anglo settlement in present-day Ontario. From 1792 until 1796 it was the capital of Upper Canada. It was important for the transhipment of goods in North America, developed as a farming community to serve the needs of the British garrison and the growing refugee population, and a vigorous commercial area. Because of Niagara's importance, eventually the entire length of the Niagara River was defended by artillery batteries.

Site: Parks Canada

Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada: History

Type: Document

With its obvious strategic location, Signal Hill became the site of harbour defences from the 18th century through the Second World War. The last battle of the Seven Years' War in North America was fought here in 1762.

Site: Parks Canada

Battle between the French frigate Atalante and the English fleet in 1760

Type: Image

When General Lévis's French army broke its siege of Quebec in May of 1760, the retreating force was accompanied by a number of small vessels. When the British attempted to capture these ships, the French warships sacrificed themselves to cover the retreat. Seen here is Captain Jean Vauquelin's frigate Atalante, run aground but still fighting after her companion Pomone was sunk.

Site: National Defence

British 'Short Land Pattern' musket, 1768-1797

Type: Image

The 'Short Land Pattern' smoothbore flintlock musket was a modified version of the earlier 'Long Land' weapon. As the name suggests, the new musket was shorter than its predecessor, having a 42" (106.7 cm) barrel instead of 46" (116.8 cm). Both muskets had a calibre (the interior diameter of the barrel) of .75 inches (19.1 mm). The British soldiers' nickname of 'Brown Bess' was also used for both weapons. 'Land Pattern' weapons were made for use by the army, as opposed to Sea Service weapons made for the Royal Navy. The Short Land musket was the main British infantry weapon during both the American and French Revolutions. In 1797, production was shifted to the less expensive 'India Pattern' musket, but the older muskets continued to serve. In Canada, many militia during the War of 1812 would have been issued with old Short Land muskets. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence