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Attempts to Increase Military Strength

Type: Document

Despite their disunity, the staff of New France agreed on one thing - the need for more fighting men to defend the colony. During the winter of 1756-57, Governor Vaudreuil reorganized existing resources, and two more battalions from the French metropolitan army were dispatched.

Site: National Defence

Corruption Causes Hardship

Type: Document

In 1756, the graft of Canadian-born François Bigot, Intendant (and chief financial minister of New France) made a bad situation worse. His theft and corruption led to rampant inflation in New France, which impoverished many officers, particularly the French-born ones without local incomes.

Site: National Defence

French Victory on the Plains of Abraham

Type: Document

The April 1760 battle of Sainte-Foy was a fierce one, but the British army was defeated. General Murray was able to retreat back into the city of Quebec in good order, despite his army having taken twice the casualties of the French force under General Lévis.

Site: National Defence

Quebec Surrenders

Type: Document

In 1759, both the British and French generals were fatally wounded during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe died on the field, and Montcalm the next day. Before dying, Montcalm ordered the French army to surrender the city and retreat to Montreal.

Site: National Defence

A Stalled Effort

Type: Document

In the late summer of 1759, time pressed on the British besiegers of Quebec - to avoid winter, they would have to raise the siege in October. After the failure at Montmorency, Wolfe's British army began a campaign of pillaging and burning Canadian homes, striking at the Canadian militia.

Site: National Defence

Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers

Type: Document

Both General Montcalm and Governor Vaudreuil wrote to their respective superiors in the fall of 1756, complaining of the other's behaviour. The officers of New France had split into two hostile camps: Canadian-born (led by the Governor) and French-born (led by Montcalm).

Site: National Defence

Canada and the First World War - War Diaries - Evolution of the Canadian Corps

Type: Document

Provides resources for information not available through the War Diaries collection. Includes information on the Newfoundland Regiment at the Somme, origins of battle names, copyright guidelines for documents in the War Diaries, and a useful glossary of terms and abbreviations appearing in the diaries.

Site: Library and Archives Canada

Hector Pellerin - Singer, Pianist, Actor (1887 - 1953) - WW1 Era Musicians

Type: DocumentSoundImage

Hector Pellerin had a large following in French-speaking parts of Canada and the United States. He recorded primarily between 1916 and 1928 and was well known for his frequent appearances in French operettas, plays, and cabarets.

Site: Library and Archives Canada

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

Lévis Besieges Quebec

Type: Document

In April 1760, General Lévis advanced on Quebec. General Murray, commanding the defending British garrison, forced out the civilian population and destroyed suburbs that masked the fortifications. Then, to prevent the French from establishing themselves outside the city, Murray attacked.

Site: National Defence