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Organization > National Defence

Subject > Strategy and Tactics > Fortifications

Resource Type > Image > Art

The battle of Long-Sault, in May 1660

Type: Image

This early-20th century engraving shows the climax of the legendary 1660 defence of Long-Sault against the Iroquois by Adam Dollard des Ormeaux and his men. One of the French defenders is shown holding a keg of gunpowder above his head. This makeshift bomb would fall back inside the fort and kill much of the garrison.

Site: National Defence

Fort York, Toronto, August 1839

Type: Image

The fort at Toronto, also known as Fort York, was rebuilt after its destruction by the Americans in 1813. As can be seen in this 1839 painting by P.J. Bainbridge, the fort was on the waterfront, at the entrance to Toronto harbour. The figure in the foreground is a soldier of the 93rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot. (Library and Archives Canada, C-002801)

Site: National Defence

Fort Niagara, 1814

Type: Image

Fort Niagara was built by the French in 1726, and fell to the British in 1759. In 1796, it was turned over to the United States following Jay’s Treaty. The fort was captured during a surprise assault by British and Canadian troops on 31 December 1813. It was returned to the United States after the end of the War of 1812. This view appeared in the Philadelphia magazine 'The Port Folio' of April 1814. Note the British civil ensign (red with the Union flag in the canton) flying over the fort.

Site: National Defence

Typical town of the north-eastern Amerindians

Type: Image

These towns nearly always featured long bark covered houses encircled by a log stockade wall for protection. Print inspired from John White’s late 16th century renderings.

Site: National Defence

General Montcalm at the battle of Carillon, 8 July 1758

Type: Image

This early-20th century view of the Battle of Carillon is taken from a Quebec primary school text familiar to generations of children. It gives a romantic view of General Montcalm inspiring his men. The clouds of smoke are quite realistic, even if some other details of costume and terrain are not. Smoke filled the air whenever gunpowder was used to fire muskets. There was no cannon firing from the French abbatis lines during the battle, although some were put in during the following days.

Site: National Defence

Quebec as seen from the north shortly after the 1759 siege of the city

Type: Image

This engraving, published in 1761, shows the walls of Quebec as seen from the north. The large white building seen at right centre is the Orphan's and Ursulines Nunnery. The convent was home to some 50 nuns who taught (according to a 1753 document) about 60 boarders and 150 day students. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000358)

Site: National Defence

Iberville leads an attack on an English fort

Type: Image

From 1686 to 1697, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706) took and retook English Hudson’s Bay Company forts and ships in four different expeditions. He is shown here leading one such attack.

Site: National Defence

Trois-Rivières, 1704

Type: Image

Trois-Rivières was founded in 1634. In 1653, a palisade, guardhouse and redoubt were completed to provide a strong defence against the Iroquois. The Iroquois threat became far less acute by the end of the 1660s but the palisade wall was kept up. An order of the Intendant from January 1706 called for cedar logs for use in the palisade and they could be seen still in good repair in 1721. The logs were 10 to 12 inches in diameter and some 12 feet in height. They enclosed the town until 19 to 21 May 1752 when a major fire consumed several buildings and the town’s log palisade. The palisade was not rebuilt. (Library and Archives Canada, C-015784)

Site: National Defence

Fort de la Montagne, circa 1690

Type: Image

Fort ‘de la Montagne’ (of the mountain) was built in 1685, just a few hundred metres outside of Montreal on the flanks of Mount Royal. The image shows A: the chapel of Notre-Dame-des-Neiges; B: the mission priest's house; C: a pair of turrets also used as a school by the sisters of the Congrégation; D: a barn also to be used as a shelter by women and children during attacks; E: two more turrets; F: an Amerindian village. The turrets marked ‘C’ can still be seen today.

Site: National Defence

Fort Lachine (also called Fort Rémy)

Type: Image

This fortification, built in 1671, was typical of the log palisade forts erected to protect settlements west of Montreal. Fort Lachine (also called Fort Rémy) featured: 1) a windmill, 2) a priest’s house, 3) a chapel, 4) the house of Jean Millot (which had previously belonged to explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle), 5) a barn, 6) palisades, 7) bastions, 8) barracks, 9) a powder magazine.

Site: National Defence