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Hospitals

Type: Document

Hospitals in New France were founded and maintained by religious orders of the Roman Catholic church. The cost of the institutions was borne by the state, in return for which officers, soldiers and sailors received free care, food and medicine.

Site: National Defence

Casualties

Type: Document

Casualties during the First World War were horrendous, with one in five being killed in combat in the front line infantry battalions. Most casualties resulted from artillery fire, followed by machine guns and rifles. The Canadian Army Medical Corps expanded during the war to provide care to the wounded and dying.

Site: National Defence

"Frater Soldiers"

Type: Document

For medical services in remote locations, far from the surgeons found in towns or large forts, the troops had to rely upon the 'frater' - a member of each company of men who had some rudimentary training in first aid. The man also cut hair…

Site: National Defence

Staff and patients, Moose Jaw field hospital, 1885

Type: Image

A group of Anglican nuns from Toronto served in a 40-bed hospital in Moose Jaw during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. They cared for sick and wounded from the battles of Batoche and Fish Creek. Twelve women in all were part of the first organized body of female nurses in Canadian military history. Note the group of wounded patients at centre, two of whom have lost an arm.

Site: National Defence

Head nurse in winter uniform, Canadian Nursing Service, circa 1908

Type: Image

The Nursing Service was formed in 1901, and Canadian military nurses served in South Africa. Initially dressed in khaki clothing appropriate for service in the field, the nurses were given more formal uniforms in 1907. This reconstruction by Ron Volstad shows a nurse's winter uniform. The painting is based on a photo of Georgina Fane Pope, a woman of exceptional talents who was the Service's first head. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

Nursing Sister Blanche Lavallée, Canadian Army Medical Corps, 26 June 1916

Type: Image

This chalk drawing is of Nursing Sister Blanche Lavallée (1891- ?) at the Canadian Military Hospital at St Cloud, Paris, 16 June 1916. Nicknamed the 'Bluebirds' by the wounded because of their sky-blue uniforms, more than 2,500 Canadian nurses served overseas. As early as 1899, Canadian nurses were given officer rank to confirm their professional standing. This was not the case with American military nurses, and the energetic Blanche Lavallée campaigned with them until they made their point in 1920. She also demanded pay equity with men of the same rank, which was finally granted during the Second World War. (Canadian Department of National Defence, PMR-C-86-419)

Site: National Defence

Warrant Officer Gagné, Canadian Forces, U.N. Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR), 1994

Type: Image

Nurse Gagné is caring for injured children in a makeshift dispensary during the genocide in Rwanda, 1994. (Canadian Department of National Defence, 95-1239)

Site: National Defence

French field hospital, 1914

Type: Image

When the war began, the French army was still wearing blue uniforms with red trousers. Deployed in this fashion on the plains of Champagne and Flanders, these soldiers suffered terrible losses from quick-firing artillery, machine guns and bolt-action rifles. Since then, all armies have worn drab colours. (Private collection)

Site: National Defence