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Canada’s Military Effort: Summing Up

Type: Document

Canada’s effort during the First World War was exceptional given its small population and its military history. Those Canadians who sacrificed their lives are remembered in the many monuments and cemeteries in Europe.

Site: National Defence

On Top of the Ridge

Type: Document

Canada's achievement at Vimy was a contrast to the previous failure of the French Neville offensive. Canadians were later used at Arleux-Gobelle and Fresnoy as part of the British effort to keep the Germans occupied while the French army, suffering from a series of mutinies due to high casualties, waited for the Americans to arrive.

Site: National Defence

Once Again, War with the Foxes

Type: Document

Eager to restore their standing after the humiliation of 1716, the Foxes began fighting with the Illinois nation, French allies. At the same time, they established a series of alliances with other groups. A French-led expedition burned Fox villages in 1728, but victory was only partial.

Site: National Defence

Experiences of a Canadian Civil Affairs Officer in Germany, March 1945 – April 1946

Type: Document

This account has considerable historical value as a record of a Canadian officer attached to a British Civil Affairs unit at the end of World War II. It also presents one view of rebuilding efforts in Germany immediately after the war.

Site: National Defence

A Strategic Problem

Type: Document

During the rest of the 1690s, the Iroquois and French traded raids. The Iroquois settlements suffered greatly, while the Amerindians felt they were being poorly supported by their English allies. Exhausted, the Iroquois signed a peace treaty with France in 1701.

Site: National Defence

Growing Canadian Nationalism

Type: Document

Canadian participation in South Africa fostered a growth in Canadian nationalism due to the social differences between Canadians and the British, the British Army's mistreatment of lower ranks, and the desire of Canadian politicians to control what they saw as Canadian troops. Memories of the combatants to the horrors of the war receded over time and new Canadian military myths were created.

Site: National Defence

Casualties

Type: Document

Casualties during the First World War were horrendous, with one in five being killed in combat in the front line infantry battalions. Most casualties resulted from artillery fire, followed by machine guns and rifles. The Canadian Army Medical Corps expanded during the war to provide care to the wounded and dying.

Site: National Defence

A Brutal Retribution

Type: Document

With Patriote forces at Saint-Eustache beaten in December 1837, British regulars and loyalist volunteers sacked the town, burning and looting. In the days following the battle, two other towns were burned, and undisciplined volunteers pillaged the surrounding countryside.

Site: National Defence

German bombardment of Arras, 1914

Type: Image

Arras is a town with a priceless architectural heritage. It lies in north-western France near the border with Belgium. In 1914, the destruction of Arras reinforced Allied propaganda comparing the Germans to barbarians. This painting by Belgian artist Gustave Faipont shows the Hotel de Ville (city hall) of Arras, with its beautiful Belfoi (bell tower). Both were largely destroyed during the war. Many other historic Belgian and French towns suffered similar fates during the Great War. (private collection)

Site: National Defence

French Attempts to Destroy a People

Type: Document

Governor General Beauharnois now encouraged and assisted France's Amerindian allies to destroy the Fox nation. Through 1729 and 1730, the Foxes suffered defeat after defeat. Attempting to flee eastwards, the Foxes were surrounded and massacred in September 1730.

Site: National Defence