History Browser

Search Results

Americans Forced On the Defensive

Type: Document

Trying to strike back at the Loyalist raiders who caused such trouble, the American rebels sent troops to destroy Iroquois settlements in 1779. Although thousands of refugees were forced to flee, the raids continued with increased strength, with the rebels generally on the losing side.

Site: National Defence

An Offensive Against the Ohio Valley

Type: Document

In 1755, with an army built around his two regular regiments, General Braddock began an attack from Virginia into the Ohio Valley. The 200 kilometre advance towards Fort Duquesne was slowed by the need to build a road and bridges to carry the army through the difficult terrain.

Site: National Defence

A Return To Earlier Methods

Type: Document

After 1777, in order to keep the American rebels on the defensive, the British adopted the old Canadian tactic of raiding enemy settlements. The raids were made by mixed groups of Amerindians and soldiers. The troops used were American loyalists such as Butler's Rangers.

Site: National Defence

The Empire's Naval Strategy

Type: Document

Imperial naval defence policy sought a united and centralized fleet in 1902 to counter the German threat, a change from defending the Empire in the colonies and dominions. While British attempts for total control over all naval ships was opposed in Canada, domestic efforts to create a Canadian navy languished. The first Canadian patrol boats were purchased as a contribution to the Imperial naval policy, but used for fisheries protection rather than for defence needs.

Site: National Defence

Canadians Presume Continued British Garrison

Type: Document

Canada became an independent state within the British Empire in 1867, but Canadian politicians assumed that Britain would continue to keep military forces in Canada, and pay for them as well. Britain, on the other hand, wanted the Canadians to pay for any troops.

Site: National Defence

The Royal Canadian Navy Created

Type: Document

The Naval Bill of 1910 created a Canadian navy with two obsolete British ships manned by British crews on loan, until Canadians could be recruited. Canadian Imperialists derided the acquisitions as being obsolete and a waste of money. Opposition by French Canadians to imperial entanglements were furthered by Henri Bourassa who championed the notion that the only real threat to Canada was the United States; since the British refused to confront the Americans - then there was no need for a navy.

Site: National Defence

The Tide Turns Against New France

Type: Document

In 1758, French attempts to halt General Forbes' British army were not enough to hold the Ohio Valley, and Fort Duquesne had to be blown up. Earlier that summer, Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario had been taken by Americans. Calls for help fell on deaf ears in France, in trouble in Europe.

Site: National Defence

A Colonial Way of War

Type: Document

During the 18th century, France held huge inland regions in North America with a few men for two reasons. First, land was largely controlled by trade alliances with local Amerindians. Second, tactics were used that combined indigenous methods with European organization and discipline.

Site: National Defence

Military Cooperation within the Commonwealth, 1939-1945

Type: Document

The countries of the Commonwealth, on balance, managed to get along quite well together and to cooperate effectively in prosecuting a war in which the interests of all of them were very much at stake. This paper looks at the satisfactory nature of the relationship and also some of its more serious problems during the Second World War.

Site: National Defence

1st Canadian Parachute Battalion in France, 6 June - 6 September 1944

Type: Document

This is the history of the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion and its involvement in the Allied Invasion of France. The period covered is from D-day, June 6, 1944, to the unit's return to England on September 6, 1944. It replaces a previous report on this Battalion.

Site: National Defence