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The French And British Navies

Type: Document

Both Britain and France needed strong navies to protect their coasts, fishing fleets and colonies. The peak of French naval power was during the 1690s, when it dominated the coasts of England. Defeated in 1692, the French navy declined in quality and strength from that point on.

Site: National Defence

Stalemate Leads to Peace

Type: Document

By 1802, the war against France in Europe was in stalemate. Only Britain was left in the field. The British had triumphed at sea and in the colonies, but both sides wanted a pause, and a treaty was signed. In America, the British provincial regiments were quickly disbanded.

Site: National Defence

A Garrison at Placentia

Type: Document

A small garrison of Troupes de la Marine arrived in Newfoundland in 1687, where fortifications were gradually established. The garrison suffered from desertion, and was attacked by pirates, English privateers and the English Royal Navy.

Site: National Defence

The European Failure

Type: Document

Unlike the Spanish Central America, Europeans were unable to successfully colonize North America in the 16th Century. Amerindian guerrilla tactics combined with a cold and hostile land to frustrate the newcomers. Nevertheless, North America became a theatre of war for European conflicts.

Site: National Defence

It's War!

Type: Document

War between Britain and France began in the North Atlantic on June 8, 1755, when warships of the Royal Navy fired upon ships of the French convoy taking reinforcements to New France. This act of war preceded the formal declaration of war by a year.

Site: National Defence

Conflicting Strategic Interests

Type: Document

French strategy in Acadia and Newfoundland centred around controlling access to the St. Lawrence River. Competition with Britain and her American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries led to the fortification and garrisoning of the region.

Site: National Defence

The War Of Spanish Succession

Type: Document

In 1702, when war broke out again between Britain and France after a short peace, the French garrisons in Acadia and Placentia were in good shape. St. John's was again attacked and captured, this time with aid from Canadian militia, Basque sailors and Micmac allies.

Site: National Defence

A Chance For French Revenge

Type: Document

Isolated diplomatically, Britain began to suffer greatly when other European powers entered American Revolutionary War after 1778. France, followed by Spain and the Netherlands, threw the British on the defensive. British colonies and fleets world-wide suffered capture or defeat.

Site: National Defence

General Braddock Leads Troops to Virginia

Type: Document

Reaction to the 1754 surrender of Fort Necessity in the Ohio Valley prompted a large-scale reinforcement of the British garrison in America. Two regiments of Foot were to be raised locally, and two more were dispatched from Ireland under General Braddock, bound for the Ohio country.

Site: National Defence

Ethnic Cleansing Prompted by Greed

Type: Document

Since 1713, the former French colony of Acadia had been part of British Nova Scotia. The large population of francophone Roman Catholics was a source of worry and jealousy to the authorities, and in July 1755, Governor Lawrence deployed troops to forcibly deport the Acadians.

Site: National Defence