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Organization > National Defence

Subject > Politics and Society

Date > 1900 > 1930-1939

Belmont Battery at Fort Rodd Hill, British Columbia

Type: Image

Built in 1898-1900 to protect the entrance to the Royal Navy (and later the Royal Canadian Navy) base on the Pacific, the battery has been restored to its appearance during the Second World War 1939-45. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Officer cadet, Royal Military College of Canada, 1954

Type: Image

Except for a few details, the full dress uniform of officer cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, remained essentially the same since the college was founded in 1874. As shown in this 1954 photo, only the shakos and pith helmets worn on parade by first-class officer-cadets disappeared, replaced by pill-box caps. (Canadian Department of National Defence, ZK-2049)

Site: National Defence

Enemy Air Action and the Canadian Army in the United Kingdom, 1939-43

Type: Document

This report is an account of the effect of enemy air action on units and men of the Canadian Army in the United Kingdom during the period 1939 – 1943, and of the part played by Canadian units in the defence of Britain against the enemy air force in those years.

Site: National Defence

Bristol Bolingbroke IVT bomber

Type: Image

The Bristol Bolingbroke was a Canadian version of the British light bomber known as the Bristol Blenheim. Bolingbroke was the name given to the Canadian-built version of the Blenheim Mk. IV. Over 600 were built by the Fairchild plant at Longueuil, Quebec, starting in 1939. The Bolingbroke was the first modern, all aluminium aircraft built in Canada, but it was also obsolete before the first example flew. Nevertheless, for lack of anything better, the design was widely used. In July 1942, a Bolingbroke helped sink a Japanese submarine off British Columbia. The photograph shows a surviving Bolingbroke Mk IVT from the collection of the Canadian Aviation Museum. 457 of the Mk IVT were built and used as navigation and gunnery trainers (DND, PCN-5234)

Site: National Defence

Some Aspects of Disciplinary Policy in the Canadian Services, 1914-1946

Type: Document

The most significant development in disciplinary policy during the period covered by this report was the process by which complete control of punishment in the Canadian forces passes from British to Canadian authorities. This process began in the First World War and was completed as a result of constitutional changes in the period before the outbreak of the Second World War.

Site: National Defence

Military Cooperation within the Commonwealth, 1939-1945

Type: Document

The countries of the Commonwealth, on balance, managed to get along quite well together and to cooperate effectively in prosecuting a war in which the interests of all of them were very much at stake. This paper looks at the satisfactory nature of the relationship and also some of its more serious problems during the Second World War.

Site: National Defence

Molly Lamb – Canada’s First female War Artist

Type: Document

In 1943, the Canadian High Commissioner to London, Vincent Massey, championed the creation of the Canadian War Records Program. Molly Lamb was the first and only female artist allowed after the war to tour the theatres of operations, although several other women artists made contributions on the home front.

Site: National Defence

The Economic Boom

Type: Document

A war economy led to a more heavily industrialized Canada and prepared it for the economic boom that followed.

Site: National Defence

Aerodrome of Democracy: Canada and the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan 1939-1945

Type: Document

This book describes the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), a scheme that produced more than 130,000 trained aircrew for the Allies during the Second World War. The training took place in Canada, and the Royal Canadian Air Force was the controlling authority. This book highlights the changing relationship in authority between Canada and England by comparing the differences in the administration of air training programs that Canada hosted for Britain during the two world wars.

Site: National Defence

Independence and Isolation

Type: Document

The First World War led to Canada’s independent stance within the Empire, a position that was fully severed after the Chanak Crisis of 1922 and the passage of the 1931 Statue of Westminster granting full independence. Pacifism, a product of the terrible losses during the war, became fashionable in society and government policy followed. Prime Minister Mackenzie King sought to prevent foreign entanglements from splitting the country as had happened in 1917.

Site: National Defence