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Subject > Armed Forces > Military Ceremony and Honours > Awards, Decorations and Medals

Date > 1700

Weapons

Type: Document

This section illustrates a selection of firearms and bladed weapons used by British and Canadian military units during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Site: National Defence

La Vérendrye's Sons Continue the Search

Type: Document

Louis-Joseph and François La Vérendrye ventured even farther than their father, reaching as far south as Nebraska and as far west as Wyoming. They were the first Europeans to record seeing the Rocky Mountains in 1743.

Site: National Defence

Louis XV, King of France from 1715 to 1774

Type: Image

King Louis XV of France (1710–1774) is shown wearing the royal robes. Around his neck are the collars and insignia of two orders of chivalry - the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, and the French Order of Saint-Louis. The white 8-pointed cross of the latter order was awarded to many Canadain soldiers during the French regime in Canada. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000604)

Site: National Defence

Captain Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville

Type: Image

Canadian soldier Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville (1668-1722) was the son of a famous father - Canadian tactician Joseph-François Hertel de La Fresnière (1642-1722). Hertel de Rouville led a number of spectacular raids against the British colonies during the war of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713). His most infamous exploit was the raid and massacre that destroyed Deerfield, Massachusetts in 1704. In later life, he was involved in developing the French colony on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). It is believed that the portrait upon which this print is based was painted before Hertel de Rouville left Quebec in 1713. It was altered to include the white cross of the Order of Saint Louis some time after he was made a chevalier in the order in December 1721.

Site: National Defence

Melchior de Jordy de Cabanac (1666-1726)

Type: Image

De Jordy de Cabanac was an officer in the Compagnies franches de la Marine. This painting shows him as he would have appeared around 1720, wearing the white cross that marks him as a member of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis. (Library and Archives Canada C-010540)

Site: National Defence

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville

Type: Document

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706), son of tactician Charles Le Moyne, was perhaps the greatest soldier New France ever produced. Between 1686 and 1706 he established himself as a master commander both on land and at sea. Also an explorer, he founded the first permanent settlement in Louisiana.

Site: National Defence

The Cross of Saint Louis

Type: Document

This medal, the only one given to French officers at the time, was awarded for years of long and good service. Its holders became knights of the Order of Saint Louis, and from 1750 were automatically raised to the nobility. Over 140 officers in New France received the Cross.

Site: National Defence

Nobles and Commoners

Type: Document

The French nobility wanted to forbid commoners positions as military officers. Louis XIV favoured competence above all else, but his successors gradually capitulated. The colonial forces were attractive to non-noble officers, since the nobility preferred to stay in France.

Site: National Defence

Officer, Compagnies franches de la Marine, circa 1750

Type: Image

This elegant officer with his snuffbox dates from about 1750. The cut of military uniforms evolved with fashion, which Canadian officers followed closely. This man is a member of the Order of Saint-Louis, as the white cross and red ribbon of the order on his left breast shows. Reconstruction by Eugène Lelièpvre. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville et d’Ardillières (1661-1706)

Type: Image

Born Pierre Le Moyne, the Canadian-born officer known best as 'd’Iberville' was the most eminent soldier born in New France. This 19th century print is based on a contemporary portrait painted some time after Le Moyne d'Iberville was made a chevalier of the Order of Saint-Louis in 1699. The white cross of the order can be seen on his breast.

Site: National Defence