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Subject > Armed Forces > Naval Forces and Merchant Navy

Date > 1800 > 1810-1819 > 1814

The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

Campaign of 1814 Battles in the Niagara Region

Type: Document

This is the main page for all charts for the 1814 campaign of the War of 1812, indicating command structure and battles . The first chart is linked to the same page and appears under coloured battle maps for 1814.

Site: Parks Canada

Sailors, Royal Navy, circa 1800-1815

Type: Image

At the time of the War of 1812, sailors of the Royal Navy — like in most navies of the period — had no prescribed uniform. But in 1623, the Royal Navy adopted a system by which sailors could buy ‘Slop Clothing’ at a fixed price. Generally, the seamen's dress consisted of a blue double-breasted jacket, with brass or horn buttons, a short waistcoat — often red but it could be another colour, blue or white trousers, a round hat, a neckerchief — often black, stockings and shoes. Slop clothing was also avaliable in Canada. An advertisement in Halifax’s 'Nova Scotia Royal Gazette' of 24 November 1813 mentioned a ‘Complete assortment of Slop Cloathing, viz, Men and youth's fine Jackets and Trowsers, Scarlet and blue cloth Waistcoats, Woolen and cotton cord ditto [waistcoats], Striped Cotton and red Flannel Shirts, Great Coats, Pea and Flushing Jackets and Trowsers, men’s flannel drawers’, these later items to face the cold North Atlantic weather.

Site: National Defence

The Battle for the Northwest

Type: Document

American plans called for the recapture of Fort Mackinac in 1814. An attack was defeated by a British ambush in August. The Americans were able to destroy the famous British ship Nancy shortly thereafter, but lost two ships of their own on Lake Huron in September.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Timber Now Vital to Britain

Type: Document

In 1806, developments in Europe made access to Canada crucial to Britain's survival. Emperor Napoleon's France blocked access to the Baltic, the traditional source of timber used in building ships for the Royal Navy. Canada was the only alternative source in British control.

Site: National Defence

Naval Disaster Foils British Invasion

Type: Document

Fortunately for the Americans troops defending Plattsburgh in September 1814, British general Prevost blundered badly. He waited for the result of a fight between the British and American navies on Lake Champlain, which the defenders won. The British invasion was over.

Site: National Defence

A Series of Amerindian Nations

Type: Document

During the eighteenth century, the northwest Pacific coast was home to a series of Amerindian nations, including the Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Nootka and Salish. These were maritime cultures - excellent sailors and fishermen who depended on the sea's resources

Site: National Defence

The Race to Build Ships

Type: Document

In 1814, with American advances stalled on the Niagara frontier and in the West, the longstanding battle to control Lake Ontario became very important. Both sides spared no effort in a naval race that saw each build and launch ships of the line and supporting frigates.

Site: National Defence

A Technological Transformation

Type: Document

The invention of the steam-powered ship in 1807 marked the start of a big change in naval warfare. During the War of 1812, the Canadian-built steamship Swiftsure regularly transported British troops between Quebec City and Montreal, far faster than sailing ships could have done.

Site: National Defence

From Colony to Country - War of 1812 - Troops and Traditions - War on the Waters

Type: DocumentImage

A brief description of this aspect of the War of 1812 followed by an annotated list of related works. Part of the National Library website "From Colony to Country: A Reader's Guide to Canadian Military History."

Site: Library and Archives Canada