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Subject > Armed Forces > Naval Forces and Merchant Navy

Date > 1800 > 1810-1819

The Military Art of the American Northwest

Type: Document

War in the Pacific Northwest centred around the canoe, which could be up to 20 metres long. Flotillas of canoes would attack enemy villages, hoping to capture prisoners to keep as slaves. Coastal forts of cedar logs were to be found, used to help control and tax maritime trade.

Site: National Defence

1815 Original Documents

Type: Document

A guarded peace was reached between the British forces and the United States after the War of 1812. This agreement, signed on April 29, 1817, by President James Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, discusses the number of ships and how they were to be armed.

Site: Parks Canada

Campaign of 1814 Battles in the Niagara Region

Type: Document

This is the main page for all charts for the 1814 campaign of the War of 1812, indicating command structure and battles . The first chart is linked to the same page and appears under coloured battle maps for 1814.

Site: Parks Canada

American Withdrawal Leaves Towns Burning

Type: Document

When the British regained control of Lake Ontario in December 1813, the Americans had to move men to hold their shipyards at Sackets Harbor. Unable to hold Fort George, they burnt both it and the surrounding towns in mid-winter. A unit of Canadian traitors helped them in this cruelty.

Site: National Defence

Sailors, Royal Navy, circa 1800-1815

Type: Image

At the time of the War of 1812, sailors of the Royal Navy — like in most navies of the period — had no prescribed uniform. But in 1623, the Royal Navy adopted a system by which sailors could buy ‘Slop Clothing’ at a fixed price. Generally, the seamen's dress consisted of a blue double-breasted jacket, with brass or horn buttons, a short waistcoat — often red but it could be another colour, blue or white trousers, a round hat, a neckerchief — often black, stockings and shoes. Slop clothing was also avaliable in Canada. An advertisement in Halifax’s 'Nova Scotia Royal Gazette' of 24 November 1813 mentioned a ‘Complete assortment of Slop Cloathing, viz, Men and youth's fine Jackets and Trowsers, Scarlet and blue cloth Waistcoats, Woolen and cotton cord ditto [waistcoats], Striped Cotton and red Flannel Shirts, Great Coats, Pea and Flushing Jackets and Trowsers, men’s flannel drawers’, these later items to face the cold North Atlantic weather.

Site: National Defence

The Battle for the Northwest

Type: Document

American plans called for the recapture of Fort Mackinac in 1814. An attack was defeated by a British ambush in August. The Americans were able to destroy the famous British ship Nancy shortly thereafter, but lost two ships of their own on Lake Huron in September.

Site: National Defence

Canadian Timber Now Vital to Britain

Type: Document

In 1806, developments in Europe made access to Canada crucial to Britain's survival. Emperor Napoleon's France blocked access to the Baltic, the traditional source of timber used in building ships for the Royal Navy. Canada was the only alternative source in British control.

Site: National Defence

British Raid on Sackets Harbor Fails

Type: Document

As the summer of 1813 progressed, the British regained control of Lake Ontario, and their fleet covered a landing at Sacket Harbour, the main American shipyard on the Lake. The British were beaten back with heavy losses by the defenders, led by General Jacob Brown.

Site: National Defence

Naval Disaster Foils British Invasion

Type: Document

Fortunately for the Americans troops defending Plattsburgh in September 1814, British general Prevost blundered badly. He waited for the result of a fight between the British and American navies on Lake Champlain, which the defenders won. The British invasion was over.

Site: National Defence

A Series of Amerindian Nations

Type: Document

During the eighteenth century, the northwest Pacific coast was home to a series of Amerindian nations, including the Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Nootka and Salish. These were maritime cultures - excellent sailors and fishermen who depended on the sea's resources

Site: National Defence