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Detail of a map of Quebec City in 1780

Caption: Detail of a map of Quebec City in 1780

This map shows Quebec and the surrounding countryside in 1780. It was created by Bernard de Weiderhold, an officer of the German troops in British service posted in Canada during the American War of Independence. 1780 was five years after the failed American attack on Quebec and German troops formed most of the garrison. Note the wall around the city and the strengthened redoubt area on Cape Diamond where the Citadel was eventually built in the 1820s. (Portuguese Army Library, Lisbon)